The following abbreviations are used for works cited in the text. Nonfiction prose citations indicate volume and page numbers; novel citations include volume or book, chapter, and page. Scriptural quotations are from the King James Version.


B        John Bunyan. The Pilgrim's Progress. Ed. Roger Sharrock. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965.

BCP   The Book of Common Prayer. Oxford: Oxford University Press; and London: Henry Frowde, n.d.

BH     Charles Dickens. Bleak House. Ed. George Ford and Sylvere Monod. Norton Critical Edition. New York: W. W. Norton, 1977.

CB     Charles Dickens. Christmas Books. Vol. 4 of the Nonesuch Dickens, ed. Arthur Waugh, Hugh Walpole, Walter Dexter, and Thomas Hatton. Bloomsbury: Nonesuch Press, 1937.

CME   Thomas Carlyle. Critical and Miscellaneous Essays. Centenary Edition. Vols. 26-30 of The Works of Thomas Carlyle, ed. H. D. Traill. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1896-1901.

D       The Letters of Charles Dickens. Ed. Walter Dexter. Vols. 10-12 of the Nonesuch Dickens, ed. Arthur Waugh, Hugh Walpole, Walter Dexter, and Thomas Hatton. Bloomsbury: Nonesuch Press, 1938.

DS     Charles Dickens. Dombey and Son. Ed. Alan Horsman. World's Classics Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

ED     Charles Dickens. The Mystery of Edwin Brood. Ed. Margaret Cardwell. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.

FR     Thomas Carlyle. The French Revolution. Vols. 2-4 of Works.

H         Thomas Carlyle. On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History. Vol. 5 of Works.

Life    John Forster. The Life of Charles Dickens. Ed. A. J. Hoppe. Everyman's Library Edition. 2 vols. New York: Dutton, 1966. [xv/xvi]

LD     Charles Dickens. Little Dorrit. Ed. Harvey Peter Sucksmith. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.

LDP   Thomas Carlyle. Latter-Day Pamphlets. Vol. 20 of Works.

LOL   Charles Dickens. The Life of Our Lord. London: Associated Newspapers, 1934.

MC     Charles Dickens. Martin Chuzzlewit. Ed. P. N. Furbank. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968.

MP     Charles Dickens. Miscellaneous Papers, Plays, and Poems. Ed. B. W. Matz. Vol. 18 of The Works of Charles Dickens. National Library Edition. New York: Bigelow, Brown, and Company, n.d.

OCS   Charles Dickens. The Old Curiosity Shop. . Ed. Angus Easson. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972.

OMF   Charles Dickens. Our Mutual Friend. Ed. Stephen Gill. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971.

OT     Charles Dickens. Oliver Twist. Ed. Kathleen Tillotson. World's Classics Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

P         The Letters of Charles Dickens. Pilgrim Edition. 5 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Vol. 1 (1820-39), ed. Madeline House and Graham Storey, 1965.
Vol. 2 (1840-41), ed. Madeline House and Graham Storey, 1969.
Vol. 3 (1842-43), ed. Madeline House, Graham Storey, and Kathleen Tillotson, 1974.
Vol. 4 (1844-46), ed. Kathleen Tillotson, 1977.
Vol. 5 (1847-49), ed. Graham Storey and K. J. Fielding, 1981.

PP     Charles Dickens. The Pickwick Papers. Ed. Robert L. Patten. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972.

P&P   Thomas Carlyle. Past and Present. Vol. 10 of Works.

SB     Charles Dickens. Sketches by Boz. Vol. 1 of The Complete Works of Charles Dickens, ed. Richard Garnett. London: Chapman and Hall, 1900.

SR     Thomas Carlyle. Sartor Resartus. Vol. 1 of Works.

UT     Charles Dickens. The Uncommercial Traveller. Vol. 29 of The Works of Charles Dickens. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911.


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Last modified 15 August 2009