In preparing The Mayor of Casterbridge for the Smith, Elder volume publication Thomas Hardy made adjustments to the following chapters (the instalments appearing in parentheses) as they existed in the serialised version that ran weekly in The Graphic:
- 12 (no. 5, Jan. 30)
- 18 (no. 8, Feb. 20)
- 34 (no.15, April 10)
- 35 (no. 16, April 17)
- 43 (no. 19, May 8)
- 44 (no. 20, May 15)
F. B. Pinion in "The Effect of Serialization on the Narrative" states that Hardy "removed one or two of the less convincing situations when he revised the serial version for the more critical readers who were likely to read the novel when it appeared in book form." 1 Bryn Caless notes that for the volume edition "Hardy excised various of the superfluous incidents"--the most important being "a meeting between Susan and Lucetta in the marketplace, Susan being unaware of Lucetta's identity, and the whole scene witnessed by an agonized Henchard." 2 Caless evidently considers Farfrae's delivery of Henchard's letter to Lucetta at Budmouth harbour to be less important, although with its multiple coincidences this scene epitomizes the gross sorts of improbabilities that seem to have appealed to serial readers. In The Graphic's serial version of the novel, Henchard's motive for exiling himself from Casterbridge is merely jealousy at the prospect of Elizabeth's marriage. It is revealed after his departure that she has been meeting Newson secretly at Farfrae's house for some months.
These and other changes from serial to volume, as Purdy notes in his bibliographical study, "are not, as in the case of several subsequent novels, simply a return to an original unbowdlerized version." 3 Hardy himself had been worried about the demands of weekly publication "with the need to force an incident into each instalment, [which] would strain the credulity of the reader of the novel as a whole," 4 according to Frederick R. Karl. Joseph W. Beach in "Bowdlerized Versions of Hardy" observes that in both The Well-Beloved and The Mayor of Casterbridge Hardy "made special provision for the sensibilities of the magazine reader" by substituting "a regular marriage for the illicit love affair which [each] story calls for." 5 Beach adds that this alteration in The Mayor of Casterbridge "was made at a great expense of plausibility and art" (633). However, as Hardy wrote to Leslie Stephen, then editor of The Cornhill (18 February 1874?), probably in regard to the part- publication of Far From The Madding Crowd (then being run in that magazine) he was
always willing, and indeed anxious, to give up any points which may be desirable in a story when read as a whole, for the sake of others which shall please those who read it in numbers. Perhaps I may have higher aims some day, and be a great stickler for the proper artistic balance of the completed work, but for the present circumstances lead me to wish merely to be considered a good hand at a serial. 6
Beach explains the apparent discrepancy between Hardy's positive attitude towards serialisation in 1874 and his railing against the "literary compromises" it entailed in an 1890 contribution to a symposium on "Candour in English Fiction" by noting that such changing attitudes and a "drift towards greater frankness and bolder realism" (641) were shared by many other late Victorians. William Rutland notes that the manuscript for the 1886 novel shows "the manipulations necessary to appease editors . . . subsequently done in different coloured ink" Perhaps, as would be the case with the Tess of the D'Urbervillesmanuscript, the different- coloured ink signals Hardy's intention to delete for the text to be published in volume certain passages he was putting in expressly to satisfy "the proprieties demanded by the conventions of the time, which were becoming increasingly irksome to Hardy" (Rutland 204-5).
In her chapter on The Mayor of Casterbridge in Thomas Hardy from Serial to Novel (1927), Marv Ellen Chase mentions that the novel finished its serial run on 15 May, 1886, in The Graphic, leaving "plenty of time for revision before book publication. . . ." 8 However, the novel's part- publication preceded its appearance in volume form only if one excepts the last number, for Smith, Elder brought out the two-volume edition on 10 May, 1886 (Caless 305). According to Richard Little Purdy in his bibliographical study of Hardy's writings, the last page of the novel was actually written on 17 April, 1885. Thus, Hardy would have had a year rather than months in which to conduct his manuscript revisions for Smith, Elder, but even in volume form The Mayor of Casterbridge betrays its 'commercial' and Sensation Novel origins: "weekly serialization no doubt helps to account for the high proportion of dramatic and sensational incident in this novel, some of it contrived and inessential." 9
Caless notes that some material excised after part-publication was restored in 1895; in particular, Hardy put back the illicit, sexual nature of Lucetta and Henchard's relationship on Jersey. "In 1886 Hardy cut nearly all of the chapter relating to Henchard's return to Casterbridge on Elizabeth's wedding-day, but he was persuaded to restore the chapter in 1895 by an American friend" (Caless 306), identified by Carl J. Webber in "The Restoration of Hardy's Starved Goldfinch" as either Rebekah or Catherine Owen of New York City.
In a more general way, Hardy later sought to improve the diction of The Mayor of Casterbridge as he had done in revising The Return of the Native (1878); "there are also sentences which have been obviously reconstructed for greater coherence or emphasis" (Chase l5). In addition, as Chase remarks, Hardy strengthened his delineation of the characters of Farfrae and Elizabeth Jane during the 1886 revision. Of twenty-six principal incidents in the plot, Chase states that Hardy altered eight after the story's serial run in The Graphic; these she designates as 5, 8, 14, 16, 17, 18, 24, and 25.
5. Complication is afforded by Henchard's previous intimate relationship with a woman ln Jersey, to whom he writes explaining how his situation has changed (as a result of Susan's return), and to whom he sends consolation money. 8. Lucetta, the woman on Jersey, writes for the return of her letters; although Henchard carries them to her coach as she is passing through Casterbridge, he does not find her, and so retains possession of them. 10 14. Henchard, having overheard Farfrae's proposal of marriage to Lucetta, afterwards threatens to reveal their past intimacy unless she marries him. 16. Henchard, saving Elizabeth and Lucetta from a bull, learns that the latter has married Farfrae. 17. "Henchard . . . finds in his old safe . . . the letters of Lucetta . . . , and reads them aloud to Farfrae, who suspects nothing" (18) about the identity of the writer. 18. Lucetta arranges to meet Henchard, and secures from him the promise to return the letters. 24. Henchard, having seen Newson again, leaves Casterbridge. When Newson returns, Elizabeth Jane learns about Henchard's duplicity and resents his having sent Newson away. 25. Henchard returns to town for Elizabeth's wedding with a gift, but, reproved by her, leaves.
Chase feels that, "in spite of the author's announcement in his preface [of 1895], which would surely lead one to expect few alterations, the changes from serial to book, in incident and plot alone, are many and significant" (19). The changes in character are negligible, however, with the exception of Lucetta. In Chapter 12, Henchard's narration and subsequent relationship with Lucetta on Jersey is somewhat changed in the volume from the serial.
A. From a boating accident the previous summer in which he had struck his head and nearly drowned (but for the timely intervention of Lucetta, who dove in to rescue him) in the serial, Henchard merely "fell quite ill, and . . . sank into one of those gloomy fits" of his in the book. Chase rightly describes the serial's version of Henchard's narrative as "far more sensational." "Surely to fall out of a boat in the harbour, to strike one's head in falling, and to be saved by a woman from drowning afford greater dramatic effect" (22), although such specifics do lend the serial's inset narrative a certain verisimilitude.
B. Whereas in the volume version the young lady who nurses Henchard is merely staying at the same boarding house (and, despite her breeding and education, is described as "the daughter of some harum-scarum military officer who had got into difficulties"), in the serial (i) Lucetta had already "had a foolish liking for [Henchard] for more than five years" (Jan. 30; 134); (ii) She is the daughter of a merchant with whom Henchard has dealt.
C.. Whereas in the volume version the woman and Henchard, becoming "intimate," caused a local scandal that damaged her reputation, in the serial (i) Henchard "did marry her at St. Heliers a fortnight" (134) prior to Susan's return; (ii) No sooner has Susan returned to life than Henchard's bride is due to arrive "by the packet to-morrow night" (13~); (iii) Henchard had regretted his new marriage (even before he learned that Susan was still alive" because he "felt [he] did not care for this young woman, much as she might like [him]" (134). Chase speculates that "either Hardy, or [M. E. Braddon, a Sensation novelist in her own right, and] the editor of the London Graphic, or both, thought it was wiser to depict the conventional love affair, rather than the unconventional, for their Victorian readers" (22).
As a consequence of his having already married Lucetta in the serial, Henchard asks Farfrae to ride down to Budmouth to deliver a letter and a cheque to the young woman (still unnamed) at the quay as soon as the packet- boat lands. Conveniently, the lady--now identified as "Mrs. Henchard'!--is first described as being in a disarranged state owing to the breezy passage. . ." (Jan. 30: 135). Thus, admitted to the entrance of the sole female passenger's cabin, Farfrae sees only "a white hand and arm . . . stretched out from behind a red curtain," but again--conveniently--he hears her pronounce only a single word ("Yes.") in answer to his query as to whether she is his employer's wife. Half-an-hour later, when he returns to the boat to assist her to board a vessel returning to Jersey, she has already disembarked and caught the return packet-boat.
Improbable as this incident sounds in summary, Hardy has used it artistically, first to describe the change from an interior to a maritime countryside–
About half way he passed the top of a ridge which formed a kind of girdle enclosing the rural districts of the country from those shoreward. A marine sentiment in the landscape followed; there was a change in the smell of the air from field and fruit cosiness of the inland country had gone.
--and then to reveal Farfrae's discomfort at having to under take so delicate a mission:
Farfrae, to tell the truth, though pitying her [i. e., Henchard's bride of a few weeks] was somewhat relieved that the letter had done its work so smoothly and promptlythat circumstances had relieved him of the responsibility of having to assist her in starting her return journey after she has received such distressing news (namely that the long-lost wife of the man whom she has just married has reappeared).
Despite these fine touches, however, Hardy's manoevering so as to prevent a face-to-face meeting between Farfrae and Lucetta here is reminiscent of Mrs. Wood's plot manipulations in East Lynne (1861). The series of improbable coincidences in the serial's twelfth chapter also recalls those in such sensation novels as Wilkie Collins's No Name (1862) and Armadale(1866) and Hardy's own Desperate Remedies (1871). Chase considers that such sensational touches were
probably not unpleasing to the magazine public. The Hardy reader is, however, quite conscious of the sacrifice of the author's usual conciseness in the handling of incident by the intrusion of so many more or less ill-chosen details. (26).
In fact, as the above quotations from The Graphicillustrate, it is not the "details" but the construction of the plot itself that is ill-fashioned. There are simply too many complications and improbable coincidences involved in Henchard's having already married Lucetta and now having to keep her away from Casterbridge--and his first wife.
Hardy's machinations in the twelfth chapter of the serial can be appreciated fully when one arrives at Farfrae's courting and marrying Lucetta. Setting aside the impropriety of Henchard's and Lucetta's indulging in what Chase terms "intimacy without marriage" (27)--such unintentional bigamy being a feature of both East Lynneand Lady Audley's Secret which "effectively enabled a man and women to enjoy the sweets of adultery" 11 --one recognizes that Hardy's original conception (restored in the volume version) is far less complicated and far more believable. There is no reason why Farfrae should be sent to meet Lucetta, other than to prevent her arrival in Casterbridge and spare his employer the embarrassment of having to meet her himself. The elimination of the St. Heliers marriage also solves the problem of Lucetta's imminent arrival; therefore, Henchard can deal with his Jersey mesalliance by mail.
In an April, 1863, Quarterly Review article condemning contemporary sensation novels, H. L. Manse castigates the kind of readers who patronize "periodicals, circulating libraries, and railway bookstalls" 12 as having little "discrimination" (358) and "a diseased appetite" (357) for "excitement alone. . . ." In particular, Manse notes the tendency of early sensation novels to utilize bigamy as part of the plot (by accident rather than design, Henchard's St. Heliers marriage is bigamous): "Indeed, so popular has this crime become, as to give rise to an entire sub-class in this branch of literature, which may be distinguished as that of Bigamy Novels" (361).
Another feature common to both Hardy's novels and the Sensation Novels is the misdirected letter. Chase feels that the biggest difference between serial and volume forms of The Mayor of Casterbridge lies in the author's handling of Lucetta's request for and receipt of her love letters. Hardy's original conception of the Henchard/Lucetta relationship renders Jopp's later treatment of these letters more credible since intimacies between persons not merely informally engaged but actually married would hold greater titillation for the crowd at Peter's Finger. Knowing nothing of Henchard's already being married to Susan, the crowd would assume that Lucetta was in law Henchard's wife when she married Farfrae. The chief differences in the plot surrounding the letters are the meeting of Susan and Lucetta ("a decidedly ironical situation to the serial reader," as Chase remarks  since both are Mrs. Henchard) and Henchard's entrusting the letters to a coach guard through Elizabeth Jane and Farfrae. That the guard should fail to deliver them "suggests a desire on the part of the author of the serial to give an added emphasis to the vicissitudes through which Lucetta's unfortunate letters must pass" (Chase 26-7). As an experienced serial writer, Hardy knew exactly how to toy with his reader: once again, he holds out then cancels the prospect of a meeting between Farfrae and Lucetta, thereby hinting at the importance to the plot of their future relationship. Such authorial manoeuvering, too, suggests an emphasis of the machinations of plot rather than on the mainsprings of character, the latter being Hardy's clear preference in the volume version.
The "Paisley shawl with a red centre" (Feb. 20: 218) that identifies Lucetta to Henchard generates considerable anxiety for the Mayor when he sees "a veiled young woman" talking to Susan in the serial. The meeting, as Chase suggests, tends "to excite suspense at the possibility of something happening" (27) only if there is a danger of Henchard's having married Lucetta coming out. The suspense-getting value of such a meeting is much reduced in the pre-serial version, and would strain credibility for no real reason since Henchard has written to his fiancee on Jersey explaining why he cannot go through with the marriage. Once Hardy had determined to cancel the serial's secret marriage, there was simply no cat to let out of the bag.
Curiously, in the serial version Lucetta is travelling to Bristol by coach under the name "Miss St. Helier," rather than either "La Sueur" or "Templeman," the latter being the name she adopts in accord with the wishes of her benefactress, her Aunt Templeman. The additional alias in the serial was perhaps intended to heighten the atmosphere of secretiveness and deception surrounding Lucetta, in accord with the practice of sensation novels, in which false identity and disguise are usually central features of the plot. The second alias is further evidence of what H. L. Manse termed the "commercial atmosphere" of the sensation novel pervading the serialised version of The Mayor of Casterbridge .
Similarly, that Hardy in the serial devotes nearly three times the amount of space it occupies in the book to the incident with the bull (in the March 27th instalment) suggests Hardy's recognition of the necessity for suspense and excitement in part-publication. The effect of the material later cut is to prolong the bull's pursuit of the two women. More subtly, the excised material shows Elizabeth Jane to advantage, for Hardy describes her as "much the cooler as well as the stronger" (342) as she directs her companion to safety while actively trying to outwit their adversary, "by a combination of dexterity and courage . . . seiz[ing] the staff affixed to the bull.." Lucetta appears quite the reverse, rendering her self an easy target for the charging bull rather than climbing the cloverstack, as Elizabeth has suggested.
Her addle-headed confusion lowers her character in the reader's estimation. On the other hand, Hardy emphasizes her craftiness as she prepares (in the serial) to entreat Henchard for the return of her correspondence. In the revised work, Lucetta hopes that "tears and pleadings" will move her former lover, but in the serial (the April 17th instalment) to these she adds "artifice" (421) and "hypocrisy" (422) by cosmetically ageing and "disfiguring" her features through two hours' application:
The chemist up the street, who eked out a meagre drug trade by scented soaps, cosmetics, and disfiguring ointments of various kinds, was three or four times requisitioned for this proceeding. By the time she had sicklied herself to her mind the hour [for meeting Henchard at the Ring] had arrived.
A further piece of melodrama cut for volume publication is Farfrae's detecting a "female figure" (422)- -in fact, his wife Lucetta--emerging from the Ring in company with Henchard. Ironically, Farfrae has "no suspicion as to the personality of his [Henchard's] companion" because she is wearing unfamiliar clothing. Credibility is further strained by Farfrae's sketching in for Henchard his plans for the seedshop while Lucetta walks on the other side of Henchard: "They had walked on together through the gloom, Henchard drawing Lucetta's arm through his own to lend a delusive aspect to the rendezvous he had been surprised in, and keeping her on the outside." Wisely Hardy chose to remove this highly awkward scene from the volume, but in doing so also eliminated the line uttered by Donald after Lucetta has surreptitiously crept back into the house and "restored herself to her natural hues. . . ." When she encounters her husband in the dining-room, he cheerfully retails to her the news that Henchard is again wooing:
"Well, Lucetta, I've a bit of news for ye," he said gaily. "I think poor Henchard is going to console himself by speculating in a wife once more. I met him courting just now."Although the irony must have been delicious to Hardy, the whole incident for the sake of probability had to go. This paragraph, which closes the serial version of Chapter XXXV, is the basis for the April 27th number's illustration by Robert Barnes, a picture of Lucetta and Farfrae rendered almost meaningless to the modern reader deprived of these deleted plot machinations worthy of the author of Desperate Remedies.
"The incident of Henchard's discovery of Newson on the Budmouth Road" in Chapter 41, important in the volume form because it motivates Henchard's decision to leave Casterbridge, "is entirely omitted in the serial"Chase 41). Instead, Hardy offers as the motivational factor Henchard's discovery of Elizabeth's clandestine love-affair with his enemy Farfrae. In the serial we do not learn until the end of Chapter 43 that Elizabeth Jane has known for some time (weeks or even months) that Newson is in Budmouth, for she has been meeting her natural father "two or three times a week"(511) on the Budmouth Road. In protracting this situation Hardy has gained suspense at "a sacrifice of plausibility" (Chase 42).
Not restored in English editions until 1912 was, as the author himself remarked in the 1912 preface, "nearly a chapter which . . . was printed in the serial issue"; Chase concludes that Hardy was referring to Henchard's returning to town in Chapter 44 for Elizabeth Jane's wedding day (May 15; 539). Chase speculates that in revising the story for volume publication Hardy wished to attenuate "the sensational and melodramatic in his finished product," but that he also far misinterpreted the effect of Henchard's return . . . as to sacrifice . . . the culminating episode which so fittingly brings his great tragedy to a close" (46).
The effect of serialisation on characterization is even more significant than its effect on plot. Despite Henchard's telling a long story at the public dinner in Chapter 5 (Jan. 16: 69), Henchard's character is much the same in the volume, although "the magazine reader might have gathered that he was more loquacious" (Chase 47). As has been noted, the serial version makes Lucetta seem stupid in the bull incident, but crafty when preparing herself for her interview with Henchard regarding the return of her letters. Where Hardy made changes from the serial to the volume is in the characters of Elizabeth and Farfrae.
The blue-eyed Elizabeth Jane of the serial is characterized by such adjectives as "sensible" and "unselfish," ~simple~ and ~sober", her black-eyed counterpart of the book is never described as sensible and unselfish, she is "studious" instead of "simple," and "quiet" instead of "sober." She of the serial is, moreover, not particularly pleasing to look upon. . . . In the serial she is "ignorant" and "uninstructed"; in the book, only "unfinished" and "unsophisticated." (Chase 48- 9)
In Farfrae's case, Chase has identified "eighteen distinct changes, either in spelling or in phraseology, to suggest a more pronounced Scotch accent" (50). In addition, she notes that after the publication of the first and second volume editions (Smith, Elder in 1886 and Sampson Low, Marston Searle and Rivington in 1887), the "professor of the tongue in question" (whom R. L. Purdy in Thomas Hardy: A Bibliographical Study  identifies as Sir George Douglas ) "suggested the seven distinct changes" (Chase 51) evident in the 1912 fifth volume of Macmillan's "Wessex Edition." In the 1912 version "the Wessex atmosphere is unmistakably stressed and strengthened" (Chase 55) by the addition of "Wessex" at the opening of the first chapter and at the close of the second chapter, by making the river specifically "the river Froom," a "hill" "Yalbury Hill," the "White Hart Vale" The Vale of Blackmoor," and "Stickleford" "Kingsbere" (the last having associations with Tess of the D'Urbervilles, not written until five years after The Mayor of Casterbridge). Chase identifies passages which have become markedly more dialectal in the 1912 version, notably "saw" to "zeed" and "zilver zix-pence" for "silver sixpence," and "zang" for "sang." The total effect of these changes is to heighten the realism of The Mayor of Casterbridge's setting and characters, thereby muting any improbabilities in plot while, like its sensation forebears,"throw[ing] ironical light on the theme of irrationality in human affairs." 13 In a sense, Hardy's revision subsequent to the serial run suggests what Terry terms "detailism"-- the Sensation practice of rendering the improbabilities of suspense, melodrama, and behavioural extremes in "commonly shared experience" (55) and bourgeois actuality, or, as Terry puts it, "photographic reality of character and background" (55).
Although in The Mayor of Casterbridge , as Rutland notes, Hardy did not make "the slightest concession" (198) to "public taste so far as to concoct a ‘happy ending'," the novelist did pander to that general taste for suspense, melodrama, and extremes of behaviour in both serial and volume forms. However, in neither does he adopt wholly the standard Sensation Novel "apparatus of ruined heiresses, impossible wills, damning letters, skeletons in cupboards and the like. . . " (Terry 74). Early in his career as a writer, Hardy fell under the spell of the Sensation Novel, thanks in part to his first publisher, William Tinsley, who brought out the works of Braddon, Wood, Sala, Black, Ouida, and Payn, as well as Hardy's first published novel, Desperate Remedies [March, 1871), which clearly falls within this genre. (A Pair of Blue Eyes ran in Tinsley's Magazine from September, 1872, to July, 1873, before that same publisher's bringing it out as a triple-decker; furthermore, Tinsley paid Hardy forty pounds for the British and continental rights to Under The Greenwood Treein the spring of 1872.) Hardy's Collected Letters document the nature of his friendships with Sensation Novelists James Payn (1830-98) and William Black (1841-98)--as well as his working for Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1837-1915), who was not only editor of Belgravia but also the author of the best-selling Lady Audley's Secret (1862). Throughout Hardy's works, but perhaps nowhere else so graphically as in Desperate Remedies and the serial text of The Mayor of Casterbridge the features of the Sensation Novel are much in evidence: excitement, suspense, surprises, mysteries, instalment closings known as "curtains," strongly delineated characters, numerous coincidences, disguises, misdirected letters, overheard conversations, bigamous or secret marriages, and illegitimacy. However, The Mayor of Casterbridge in volume form is distinguished from its Sensation Novel kin by its treatment of nature, its careful motivation of character, and its lack of what Manse terms "some demon in human shape" (360). Hardy won his place of prominence in Mudie's 1888 catalogue, tieing George Meredith with eleven titles listed, by producing not Sensation but Art out of the bourgeois issues of money, ambition, and social status, to say nothing of the irrational, unpredictable nature of human affairs.
Serialised Mayor of Casterbridge Notes
1 F. B. Pinion, "The Effect of Serialization on the Narrative." Thomas Hardy's The Mayor of Casterbridge, intro. F. B. Pinion, notes by Bryn Caless (London: New Wessex edition, Macmillan, 1974. rpt. 1988) 14.
2Bryn Caless, "A Note on the Text," The Mayor of Casterbridge, intro. F. B. Pinion, notes by Bryn Caless (London: New Wessex edition, Macmillan, 1974. rpt. 1988) 306. The allusion is to the February 20th instalment in Chapter XYIII:
But what attracted Henchard was other than this [movement of the autumn leaves]; it was the fact that his wife's chair was pulled up beside a lady seated on a bench at the edge of the walk--a lady closely veiled, of graceful figure, wearing Paisley shawl with a red centre.
Upon her shoulders, and upon his wife's, an occasional leaf rested as it floated down. They were talking after the manner of those whom a common recreation spot had made acquaintances. Henchard looked thunderstruck when he beheld the incident. (218)
However, in reply to her husband's questioning afterward, Susan reveals that the "stranger," "a kind lady-like young woman on her way to Bristol," has not identified herself as Henchard's Jersey liaison. Lost in revision was the charming description of the activity of those "insinuating visitors, those autumn leaves" (218).
3 Richard L. Purdy, Thomas Hardy: A Bibliographical Study (Oxford; Clarendon, 1954, rpt. 1978) 52.
4 Frederick R. Karl, "'The Mayor of Casterbridge': A New Fiction Defined," Modern Fiction Studies 6, 3 (Autumn, 1960): 207.
5 Joseph W. Beach, "Bowdlerized Versions of Hardy," PMLA36 (December, 1921): 633.
6 The Collected Letters of Thomas Hardy, ed. Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate (Oxford: Clarendon, 1978), Vol. One (1840-1892) 28.
7 William R. Rutland, Thomas Hardy--A Study of his Writings and their Background (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1938), 204.
8 Mary Ellen Chase, "The Mayor of Casterbridge," Thomas Hardy from Serial to Novel (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1927), 15.
9 Norman Page, "Thomas Hardy," Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vol. 18: Victorian Novelists After 1885, ed. Ira B. Nadel and W. E. Fredeman (Detroit: Gale Research, 1983), 131.
10 According to the February 20th instalment, Henchard sealed up the letters "in a packet, which he placed in the hands of Elizabeth Jane, she being one who could execute such a commission without burning curiosity" (Thomas Hardy, The Mayor of Casterbridge, The Graphic 33 [London: Feb. 20, 1886]: 218). Meeting Elizabeth Jane quite by chance, Farfrae agrees to deliver the packet for her, but (luckily for Lucetta) the coach is empty. Farfrae then entrusts the packet to a guard, who carries them for some weeks but fails to find the intended recipient; the letters are then returned to Farfrae, who puts them in his safe. Eventually, he returns the packet to Henchard as Chase describes in her synopsis of incident 17.
11 P. D. Edwards, "Sensation Novel," Victorian Britain: An Encyclopedia, ed. Sally Mitchell (New York and London: Garland, 1988) 703.
12 H. L. Manse, "Sensation Novels." Quarterly Review 113 (April 1896): 482-95, 501-6, 512-14; rpt. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vol. 18: Victorian Novelists After 1885, ed. Ira B. Nadel and W. E. Fredeman (Detroit: Gale Research, 1983) 357.
13 Reginald C. Terry, Victorian Popular Fiction 1860-80 (London: Macmillan, 1983) 81.
Allingham, Philip V. "Robert Barnes’ Illustrations for Thomas Hardy's The Mayor of Casterbridge as Serialised in The Graphic 2 January-15 May, 1886." Victorian Periodicals Review 28, 1 (Spring, 1995): 27-39.
Hardy, Thomas.The Mayor of Casterbridge, ed. James K. Robinson. New York: W. W. Norton, 1977.
Mitchell, Sally (ed.). Victorian Britain: An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Garland, 1988.
Webber, Carl J. "The Restoration of Hardy's Starved Goldfinch." PMLA 55 (1940): 617-19.
Last modified November 18, 2000