Professor Landow (office: 338 Carr House; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org); office hours: 2.00-2:50, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Class meets in 218 Carr [70Brown Street], 3-4:50 AM, Monday. Class website: Victorian Web
The course explores some of the ways the Bible and modes of Bible interpretation provided cultural codes that formed and informed a wide range of Victorian texts, including autobiography, fiction, poetry, art criticism, and sage-writing. The course, which examines the implications for gender and genre of contemporary conceptions of typology, prophecy, and apocalypse, reads works by Charlotte Brontë, the Brownings, Carlyle, Hopkins, Newman, the Rossettis, Ruskin, and Swinburne as well as Victorian and earlier writings about biblical interpretation.
Note: Check this on-line reading list at the beginning of each week since assignments may change or be reordered.
Weekly discussion questions. The weekly reading and discussion question has three parts: (a) depending upon whether the week's subject involves art or literature, you will either cite a painting or include substantial passage of 1-3 paragraphs (please don't forget page numbers -- and to give your question set a title); (b) a graceful and effective introduction to the passage or the aspect of the painting that suggests why the reader wants to examine it closely; and (c) 4-5 questions, chiefly concerning matters of technique, for which you do not have to have answers. These exercises, which provide the basis of class discussion, should be e-mailed to me no later than 6 pm Sunday before we begin discussing the reading. (You can skip a single set of questions during the semester.) Follow for an example of such reading questions for another course.
Weeks 1 and 2. 8 through 17 September. Introduction to Victorian Religion, Biblical Interpretation, and Contemporary Sources -- Sermons, Commentaries, and Tracts
Reading: (1) Victorian religious denominations and their use of typological interpretation -- Introduction and Chapter 1 and Chapter 2, Landow, Victorian Types. (2) T. H. Horne's "On the Interpretation of Types." (3) Begin exploring The Victorian Web materials on religion. (4) The sermon as literary and cultural form: Henry Melvill, The Death of Moses" and J.H.Newman, "Moses the Type of Christ."
Week 3. 27 September. Victorian Understandings of Old Testament Prophecy and the Victorian Sage: Carlyle and Ruskin.
Reading: (1) Thomas Carlyle, "Signs of the Times" (text) "Hudson's Statue" (annotated text and commentary). (2) John Ruskin, "Traffic." (3) Selections from Landow, Elegant Jeremiahs: Victorian Understanding of the Old Testament Prophets; The Prophet's Four-Part Pattern; parts of Chapter I, The Prophetic Pattern and Chapter II, The Symbolical Grotesque that discuss Carlyle and Ruskin.
Week 4. 4 October. Victorian Apocalyptics and Gender Matters: the Victorian Woman's Bible and Women's Right to Interpret
Reading: (1) Mary Wilson Carpenter, Imperial Bibles, Domestic Bodies: Women, Sexuality, and Religion in the Victorian Market, Chapters 1-3, 6; (2) Victorian Web materials. by Carpenter and Landow. Discussion questions: Sikorski and Flynn
Suggested additional reading: Mary Wilson Carpenter, George Eliot and the Landscape of Time.
Weeks 5 and 6. 4 and 13 (?) October. Typology, Characterization, the Dramatic Monologue and Other Poetic Forms
Monday 11 October Columbus Day Holiday [meet later in week at Prof.Landow's home?]
Week 7. 18 October. Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre: Typological Symbolism, Imagery, and Characterization
Week 8. 24 October. Elizabeth Barrett Browning: Typology, Aesthetic Theory, and the Poem-as-novel
Week 9. 1 November. Alfred Lord Tennyson's In Memoriam: Typology as Poetic Resolution
Week 10. 8 November. Typology and the Visual Arts: Pre-Raphaelitism
Reading: Chapter 4, Victorian Types.
Week 11. 15 November. D. G. Rossetti, A. C. Swinburne, and Extended Types in Pre-Raphaelite Poetry
Rossetti, "The Woodspurge," ""The Blessed Damozel," and The House of Life. "'Life touching lips with immortality': Rossetti's Temporal Structures" (from Victorian Types, Ch.6).
Weeks 12 and 13. 22 and 29 November. Gerard Manley Hopkins and the Extended Type
Reading: (1) All poems in Works. (2) Landow, "'Yet hear my paradox': Hopkins's Typological Allusions" from Ch.6, Victorian Types. (3) Materials about Hopkins.
24-28 November. Wednesday noon to Sunday. Thanksgiving recess
Weeks 13. 6 December.
11-20 December: Final Exam Period
Final project due when final exam is scheduled.
- Charlotte Brontë, Jane Eyre (St. Martin's Critical Theory edition)
- Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh. Norton Critical.
- Robert Browning, The Ring and the Book.
- Gerard Manley Hopkins. Poems. Oxford.
- Alfred Lord Tennyson, In Memoriam. Norton.
A substantial portion of the readings, including primary and secondary texts on Victorian religion, biblical interpretation, and relevant literature, are available on-line, mainly in the Victorian Web.
- Thomas Scott, A commentary on the Holy Bible, 5 vols. [Rockefeller storage cutter: call number: 1-SIZE CBAO Sco8 v.1, 3-5]
- Thomas Hartwell Horne, An introduction to the critical study and knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, 2 vols. [Rockefeller storage cutter: call number: CBBI H78i]
- International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE) Bible
- Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible
- Nave's Topical Bible Concordance
- G. P.Landow, Elegant Jeremiahs: The Sage from Carlyle to Mailer
- G. P.Landow, Victorian Types, Victorian Shadows; Biblical Typology in Victorian Literature, Art, and Thought.
- Nineteenth-Century Sermons
- John Keble, "National Apostasy" (High Anglican)
- Henry Melvill, "The Death of Moses" (Evangelical Anglican)
- Henry Melvill, "Simon the Cyrenian" (Evangelical Anglican)
- John Henry Newman, Sermons. Many volumes in the Rock. (High Anglican; later Roman Catholic)
- Charles Haddon Spurgeon, Sermons. Many volumes in the Rock. (Baptist).
Last modified November 2004