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So far as Britain was concerned, the end of Crimean War had a number of results that were little to do with the war itself.
1. Foreign policy brought down another British government — this time that of the Earl of Aberdeen — and gave Palmerston a platform on which to rise to PM, a post from which he was to dominate English politics for ten years because he brought 'peace with honour'. It enhanced Palmerston's reputation.
2. In 1854, the likelihood of an Allied victory were very high: they had well-equipped, sophisticated, professional western European armies. By December 1854/January 1855 the odds were against them: the roles were reversed. By Christmas 1854 the Czar offered to supply one three-decker ship to send the Allies home. The Allies stared defeat in the face, with the potential consequences thereof. The massive public outcry in Britain was led by Roebuck, the MP for Sheffield and caused Aberdeen's downfall. In February 1855 Palmerston came to office and the odds swung back to the Allies.
3. It was an apparent, rather than a real victory for Britain. There were no lasting gains and no end to the Eastern Question; it was more of a truce and proved to be temporary
4. For Britain, the war proved to be a very expensive mistake although initially it was popular and involved the public. Even Gladstone felt that it was a 'just war'. However, it cost 25,000 lives and £76 million which had to be met out of increased taxation. Income tax had to be increased and this wrecked Gladstone's plans to abolish it.
5. The Indian Mutiny of 1857 was caused partly by Britain's poor record of blunders, mismanagement and inefficiency in the Crimean War.
6. The war highlighted the need for massive army reforms. Cardwell's reforms finally took place between 1870 and 1872; they began updating the army
7. Nursing as a vocation for ladies was enhanced
8. The importance of public health and hygiene was elevated
9. The power of the press was demonstrated
10. Napoleon III's prestige was enhanced. France became directly involved with Italian Unification by sending troops, to repay Piedmont. However, this lessened French awareness of Prussia's expansion
11. Russia escaped quite lightly, mainly because of the sheer size of the country. Russia also got a new Czar, Alexander II, who acknowledged Napoleon III. He was a liberal-minded Czar who undertook some domestic reforms. There was a temporary halt to Russian ambitions in the Middle East, but Russia turned her attention to Afghanistan
12. Austria-Hungary emerged from the war diplomatically isolated. This was of vital importance over the next 50 years or so because it determined the course of European history and was partly responsible for the First World War. Austrian neutrality upset Russia, Britain and France because they all anticipated Austrian help. Her isolation subsequently led to Italian and German Unification because no-one would aid Austria-Hungary in her time of need. These two new nations upset the balance of power in Europe
13. The Crimean War was the end of an era. Warfare in the future would be one of new technology, precluding the need for big armies and fleets. Britain concentrated on the navy, becoming isolated from Europe
14. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1868 expanded Britain's eastern interests. The Peace of Paris did not solve the problem
On the home front
The war was important for Britain's domestic affairs because a variety of issues were highlighted by the incompetence of the government and army during the war
1. The Crimean War and the conduct thereof eventually led to a professional civil service and reforms in army organisation under Gladstone
2. The importance of public opinion which had begun to make its mark in the 1760s finally came to fruition
4. It demonstrated that the old diplomatic world of Vienna was at an end, and marked the emergence of a new European balance of power
Last modified 16 May 2014