An old woman smoking a cheroot, a young devotee, and the building housing the 27 official spirits (or nats). A Burmese king, who wished to elevate Buddhism above the local animist cults, had images of all the local spirits brought to this pagoda. Emphasizing that they worshipped the Buddha, he tried to make clear their subservient position. Bagan, Burma [Myanmar]. November 2000.

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Photograph by George P. Landow: May be used without permission for any educational or scholarly purpose.


Victorianism: An
Overview History British Empire Burma/Myanmar

Last modified 17 April 2001