1. This hypertext version of Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium Eater, which has been annotated by Marjie Bloy Ph.D., Senior Research Fellow, National University of Singapore, graciously has been shared with the Victorian Web by its composer, Dave Gross, and has been taken from his website. Copyright, of course, remains with him.
  2. not in print version indicates a link to material not in the original print version

The Pains of Opium

— — as when some great painter dips
His pencil in the gloom of earthquake and eclipse.
Shelley's Revolt of Islam. a not in print version

Reader, who have thus far accompanied me, I must request your attention to a brief explanatory note on three points:

  1. For several reasons, I have not been able to compose the notes for this part of my narrative into any regular and connected shape. I give the notes disjointed as I find them, or have now drawn them up from memory. Some of them point to their own date; some I have dated; and some are undated. Whenever it could answer my purpose to transplant them from the natural or chronological order, I have not scrupled to do so. Sometimes I speak in the present, sometimes in the past tense. Few of the notes, perhaps, were written exactly at the period of time to which they relate; but this can little affect their accuracy, as the impressions were such that they can never fade from my mind. Much has been omitted. I could not, without effort, constrain myself to the task of either recalling, or constructing into a regular narrative, the whole burden of horrors which lies upon my brain. This feeling, partly, I plead in excuse, and partly that I am not in London, and am a helpless sort of person who cannot even arrange his own papers without assistance; and I am separated from the hands which are wont to perform for me the offices of an amanuensis [one who writes at the dictation of another; a scribe].
  2. You will think, perhaps, that I am too confidential and communicative of my own private history. It may be so. But my way of writing is rather to think aloud, and follow my own humours, than much to consider who is listening to me; and, if I stop to consider what is proper to be said to this or that person, I shall soon come to doubt whether any part at all is proper. The fact is, I place myself at a distance of fifteen or twenty years ahead of this time, and suppose myself writing to those who will be interested about me hereafter; and wishing to have some record of a time, the entire history of which no one can know but myself, I do it as fully as I am able with the efforts I am now capable of making, because I know not whether I can ever find time to do it again.
  3. It will occur to you often to ask, Why did I not release myself from the horrors of opium, by leaving it off, or diminishing it! To this I must answer briefly; it might be supposed that I yielded to the fascinations of opium too easily; it cannot be supposed that any man can be charmed by its terrors. The reader may be sure, therefore, that I made attempts innumerable to reduce the quantity. I add, that those who witnessed the agonies of those attempts, and not myself, were the first to beg me to desist. But could not I have reduced it a drop a day, or, by adding water, have bisected or trisected a drop? A thousand drops bisected would thus have taken nearly six years to reduce; and that they would certainly not have answered. But this is a common mistake of those who know nothing of opium experimentally; I appeal to those who do, whether it is not always found that down to a certain point it can be reduced with ease, and even pleasure, but that, after that point, further reduction causes intense suffering. Yes, say many thoughtless persons, who know not what they are talking of, you will suffer a little low spirits and dejection, for a few days. I answer, no; there is nothing like low spirits; on the contrary, the mere animal spirits are uncommonly raised; the pulse is improved; the health is better. It is not there that the suffering lies. It has no resemblance to the sufferings caused by renouncing wine. It is a state of unutterable irritation of stomach (which surely is not much like dejection), accompanied by intense perspirations, and feelings such as I shall not attempt to describe without more space at my command.

I shall now enter in media res [in the middle of things], and shall anticipate, from a time when my opium pains might be said to be at their acme an account of their palsying effects on the intellectual faculties.

My studies have now been long interrupted. I cannot read to myself with any pleasure, hardly with a moment's endurance. Yet I read aloud sometimes for the pleasure of others; because reading is an accomplishment of mine, and, in the slang use of the word accomplishment as a superficial and ornamental attainment, almost the only one I possess; and formerly, if I had any vanity at all connected with any endowment or attainment of mine, it was with this; for I had observed that no accomplishment was so rare. Players are the worst readers of all: — — reads vilely; and Mrs. — — , who is so celebrated, can read nothing well but dramatic compositions; Milton she cannot read sufferably. People in general either read poetry without any passion at all, or else overstep the modesty of nature, and read not like scholars. Of late, if I have felt moved by anything in books, it has been by the grand lamentations of Samson Agonistes, or the great harmonics of the Satanic speeches in Paradise Regained , e not in print version when read aloud by myself. A young lady sometimes comes and drinks tea with us; at her request and M.'s [Margaret (Peggy) his wife], I now and then read Wordsworth's poems to them. (W., by the bye, is the only poet I ever met who could read his own verses; often, indeed, he reads admirably.)

For nearly two years I believe that I read no book but one; and I owe it to the author, in discharge of a great debt of gratitude, to mention what that was. The sublimer and more passionate poets I still read, as I have said, by snatches, and occasionally. But my proper vocation, as I well knew, was the exercise of the analytic understanding. Now, for the most part, analytic studies are continuous, and not to be pursued by fits and starts, or fragmentary efforts. Mathematics, for instance, intellectual philosophy, etc., were all become insupportable to me; I shrunk from them with a sense of powerless and infantine feebleness that gave me an anguish the greater from remembering the time when I grappled with them to my own hourly delight; and for this further reason, because I had devoted the labour of my whole life, and had dedicated my intellect, blossoms and fruits, to the slow and elaborate toil of constructing one single work, to which I had presumed to give the title of an unfinished work of Spinoza's, namely, De Emendatione Humani Intellectšs. g not in print version This was now lying locked up as by frost, like any Spanish bridge or aqueduct, begun upon too great a scale for the resources of the architect; and, instead of surviving me as a monument of wishes at least, and aspirations, and a life of labour dedicated to the exaltation of human nature in that way in which God had best fitted me to promote so great an object, it was likely to stand a memorial to my children of hopes defeated, of baffled efforts, of materials uselessly accumulated, of foundations laid that were never to support a superstructure, of the grief and the ruin of the architect. In this state of imbecility, I had, for amusement, turned my attention to political economy; my understanding, which formerly had been as active and restless as a hyena, could not, I suppose (so long as I lived at all), sink into utter lethargy; and political economy offers this advantage to a person in my state, that though it is eminently an organic science (no part, that is to say, but what acts on the whole, as the whole again reacts on each part), yet the several parts may be detached and contemplated singly. Great as was the prostration of my powers at this time, yet I could not forget my knowledge; and my understanding had been for too many years intimate with severe thinkers, with logic, and the great masters of knowledge, not to be aware of the utter feebleness of the main herd of modern economists. I had been led in 1811 to look into loads of books and pamphlets on many branches of economy; and, at my desire, M. sometimes read to me chapters from more recent works, or parts of parliamentary debates. I saw that these were generally the very dregs and rinsings of the human intellect; and that any man of sound head, and practised in wielding logic with scholastic adroitness, might take up the whole academy of modern economists, and throttle them between heaven and earth with his finger and thumb, or bray their fungous heads to powder [beat their spongy heads to pulp] with a lady's fan. At length, in 1819, a friend in Edinburgh sent me down not in print versionMr. Ricardo's book; and, recurring to my own prophetic anticipation of the advent of some legislator for this science, I said, before I had finished the first chapter, "Thou art the man!" j not in print version Wonder and curiosity were emotions that had long been dead in me. Yet I wondered once more: I wondered at myself that I could once again be stimulated to the effort of reading; and much more I wondered at the book. Had this profound work been really written in England during the nineteenth century? Was it possible? I supposed thinking [1] § not in print version had been extinct in England. Could it be that an Englishman, and he not in academic bowers, but oppressed by mercantile and senatorial cares, had accomplished what all the universities of Europe, and a century of thought, had failed even to advance by one hair's breadth? All other writers had been crushed and overlaid by the enormous weights of facts and documents; Mr. Ricardo had deduced, à priori, k not in print version from the understanding itself, laws which first gave a ray of light into the unwieldy chaos of materials, and had constructed what had been but a collection of tentative discussions into a science of regular proportions, now first standing on an eternal basis.

Thus did one simple work of a profound understanding avail to give me a pleasure and an activity which I had not known for years; it roused me even to write, or, at least, to dictate what M. wrote for me. It seemed to me that some important truths had escaped even "the inevitable eye" of Mr. Ricardo; and, as these were, for the most part, of such a nature that I could express or illustrate them more briefly and elegantly by algebraic symbols than in the usual clumsy and loitering diction of economists, the whole would not have filled a pocket-book; and being so brief, with M. for my amanuensis, even at this time, incapable as I was of all general exertion, I drew up my Prolegomena to all Future Systems of Political Economy. l not in print version I hope it will not be found redolent of opium; though, indeed, to most people, the subject itself is a sufficient opiate.

This exertion, however, was but a temporary flash, as the sequel showed; for I designed to publish my work. Arrangements were made at a provincial press, about eighteen miles distant, for printing it. An additional compositor was retained for some days, on this account. The work was even twice advertised; and I was, in a manner, pledged to the fulfilment of my intention. But I had a preface to write; and a dedication, which I wished to make a splendid one, to Mr. Ricardo. I found myself quite unable to accomplish all this. The arrangements were countermanded, the compositor dismissed, and my "prolegomena" [learned preface or preliminary observations] rested peacefully by the side of its elder and more dignified brother.

I have thus described and illustrated my intellectual torpor, in terms that apply, more or less, to every part of the four years during which I was under the Circean spells of opium. m not in print version But for misery and suffering, I might, indeed, be said to have existed in a dormant state. I seldom could prevail on myself to write a letter; an answer of a few words, to any that I received, was the utmost that I could accomplish; and often that not until the letter had laid weeks, or even months, on my writing-table. Without the aid of M., all records of bills paid, or to be paid, must have perished; and my whole domestic economy, whatever became of Political Economy, must have gone into irretrievable confusion. I shall not afterwards allude to this part of the case; it is one, however, which the opium-eater will find, in the end, as oppressive and tormenting as any other, from the sense of incapacity and feebleness, from the direct embarrassments incident to the neglect or procrastination of each day's appropriate duties, and from the remorse which must often exasperate the stings of these evils to a reflective and conscientious mind. The opium-eater loses none of his moral sensibilities or aspirations; he wishes and longs as earnestly as ever to realize what he believes possible, and feels to be exacted by duty; but his intellectual apprehension of what is possible infinitely outruns his power, not of execution only, but even of power to attempt. He lies under the weight of incubus and night-mare; he lies in sight of all that he would fain perform, just as a man forcibly confined to his bed by the mortal languor of a relaxing disease, who is compelled to witness injury or outrage offered to some object of his tenderest love: — he curses the spells which chain him down from motion; he would lay down his life if he might but get up and walk; but he is powerless as an infant, and cannot even attempt to rise.

I now pass to what is the main subject of these latter confessions, to the history and journal of what took place in my dreams; for these were the immediate and proximate cause of my acutest suffering.

The first notice I had of any important change going on in this part of my physical economy, was from the re-awaking of a state of eye generally incident to childhood, or exalted states of irritability. I know not whether my reader is aware that many children, perhaps most, have a power of painting, as it were, upon the darkness, all sorts of phantoms: in some that power is simply a mechanic affection of the eye; others have a voluntary or semi-voluntary power to dismiss or summon them; or as a child once said to me, when I questioned him on this matter, "I can tell them to go, and they go; but sometimes they come when I don't tell them to come." Whereupon I told him that he had almost as unlimited a command over apparitions as a Roman centurion over his soldiers. In the middle of 1817, I think it was, that this faculty became positively distressing to me: at night, when I lay awake in bed, vast processions passed along in mournful pomp; friezes of never ending stories, that to my feelings were as sad and solemn as if they were stories drawn from times before Oedipus or Priam, before Tyre, before Memphis. n not in print version And, at the same time, a corresponding change took place in my dreams; a theatre seemed suddenly opened and lighted up within my brain, which presented, nightly, spectacles of more than earthly splendour. And the four following facts may be mentioned, as noticeable at this time:

  1. That, as the creative state of the eye increased, a sympathy seemed to arise between the waking and the dreaming states of the brain in one point, — that whatsoever I happened to call up and to trace by a voluntary act upon the darkness was very apt to transfer itself to my dreams; so that I feared to exercise this faculty; for, as Midas turned all things to gold, o not in print version that yet baffled his hopes and defrauded his human desires, so whatsoever things capable of being visually represented I did but think of in the darkness, immediately shaped themselves into phantoms of the eye; and, by a process apparently no less inevitable, when thus once traced in faint and visionary colours, like writings in sympathetic ink, they were drawn out, by the fierce chemistry of my dreams, into insufferable splendour that fretted my heart.
  2. For this, and all other changes in my dreams, were accompanied by deep-seated anxiety and gloomy melancholy, such as are wholly incommunicable by words. I seemed every night to descend — not metaphorically, but literally to descend — into chasms and sunless abysses, depths below depths, from which it seemed hopeless that I could ever re-ascend. Nor did I, by waking, feel that I had re-ascended. This I do not dwell upon; because the state of gloom which attended these gorgeous spectacles, amounting at least to utter darkness, as of some suicidal despondency, cannot be approached by words.
  3. The sense of space, and in the end the sense of time, were both powerfully affected. Buildings, landscapes, etc., were exhibited in proportions so vast as the bodily eye is not fitted to receive. Space swelled, and was amplified to an extent of unutterable infinity. This, however, did not disturb me so much as the vast expansion of time. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night; nay, sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium, passed in that time, or, however, of a duration far beyond the limits of any human experience
  4. The minutest incidents of childhood, or forgotten scenes of later years, were often revived. I could not be said to recollect them; for if I had been told of them when waking, I should not have been able to acknowledge them as parts of my past experience. But placed as they were before me, in dreams like intuitions, and clothed in all their evanescent circumstances and accompanying feelings, I recognized them instantaneously. I was once told by a near relative of mine, that having in her childhood fallen into a river, and being on the very verge of death but for the critical assistance which reached her, she saw in a moment her whole life, in its minutest incidents, arrayed before her simultaneously as in a mirror; and she had a faculty developed as suddenly for comprehending the whole and every part. This, from some opium experiences of mine, I can believe; I have, indeed, seen the same thing asserted twice in modern books, and accompanied by a remark which I am convinced is true, namely, that the dread book of account, which the Scriptures speak of, q not in print version is, in fact, the mind itself of each individual. Of this, at least, I feel assured, that there is no such thing as forgetting possible to the mind; a thousand accidents may and will interpose a veil between our present consciousness and the secret inscriptions on the mind. Accidents of the same sort will also rend away this veil; but alike, whether veiled or unveiled, the inscription remains for ever; just as the stars seem to withdraw before the common light of day, whereas, in fact, we all know that it is the light which is drawn over them as a veil; and that they are waiting to be revealed, when the obscuring daylight shall have withdrawn.

Having noticed these four facts as memorably distinguishing my dreams from those of health, I shall now cite a case illustrative of the first fact; and shall then cite any others that I remember, either in their chronological order, or any other that may give them more effect as pictures to the reader.

I had been in youth, and ever since, for occasional amusement, a great reader of Livy, whom I confess that I prefer, both for style and matter, to any other of the Roman historians; and I had often felt as most solemn and appalling sounds, and most emphatically representative of the majesty of the Roman people, the two words so often occurring in Livy — Consul Romanus; r not in print version especially when the consul is introduced in his military character. I mean to say, that the words king, sultan, regent, etc., or any other titles of those who embody in their own persons the collective majesty of a great people, had less power over my reverential feelings. I had, also, though no great reader of history, made my self minutely and critically familiar with one period of English history, namely, the period of the Parliamentary War, s not in print version having been attracted by the moral grandeur of some who figured in that day, and by the many interesting memoirs which survive those unquiet times. Both these parts of my lighter reading, having furnished me often with matter of reflection, now furnish me with matter for my dreams. Often I used to see, after painting upon the blank darkness a sort of rehearsal whilst waking, a crowd of ladies, and perhaps a festival and dances. And I heard it said, or I said to myself, "These are English ladies from the unhappy times of Charles I. These are the wives and daughters of those who met in peace, and sat at the same tables, and were allied by marriage or by blood; and yet, after a certain day in August, 1642, never smiled upon each other again, nor met but in the field of battle; and at Marston Moor, at Newbury, or at Naseby, t not in print version cut asunder all ties of love by the cruel sabre, and washed away in blood the memory of ancient friendship." The ladies danced, and looked as lovely as the court of George IV. u not in print version Yet I knew, even in my dream, that they had been in the grave for nearly two centuries. This pageant would suddenly dissolve; and, at a clapping of hands, would be heard the heart-quaking sound of Consul Romanus; and immediately came "sweeping by," in gorgeous paludaments,v not in print version Paulus or Marius, w not in print versiongirt around by a company of centurions, with the crimson tunic hoisted on a spear, and followed by the alalagmos x not in print version of the Roman legions.

Many years ago, when I was looking over Piranesi's "Antiquities of Rome," y not in print version Mr. Coleridge, who was standing by, described to me a set of plates by that artist, called his "Dreams," z not in print version and which record the scenery of his own visions during the delirium of a fever. Some of them (I describe only from memory of Mr. Coleridge's account) represented vast Gothic halls; on the floor of which stood all sorts of engines and machinery, wheels, cables, pulleys, levers, catapults, etc., expressive of enormous power put forth, and resistance overcome. Creeping along the sides of the walls, you perceived a staircase; and upon it, groping his way upwards, was Piranesi himself. Follow the stairs a little further, and you perceive it to come to a sudden, abrupt termination, without any balustrade, and allowing no step onwards to him who had reached the extremity, except into the depths below. Whatever is to become of poor Piranesi? You suppose, at least, that his labours must in some way terminate here. But raise your eyes, and behold a second flight of stairs still higher; on which again Piranesi is perceived, by this time standing on the very brink of the abyss. Again elevate your eye, and a still more aÎrial flight of stairs is beheld; and again is poor Piranesi busy on his aspiring labours; and so on, until the unfinished stairs and Piranesi both are lost in the upper gloom of the hall. With the same power of endless growth and self-reproduction did my architecture proceed in dreams. In the early stage of my malady, the splendour of my dreams was indeed chiefly architectural; and I beheld such pomp of cities and palaces as was never yet beheld by the waking eye, unless in the clouds. From a great modern poet I cite the part of a passage which describes, as an appearance actually beheld in the clouds, what in many of its circumstances I saw frequently in sleep: A not in print version

The appearance, instantaneously disclosed,
Was of a mighty city — boldly say
A wilderness of building, sinking far
And self-withdrawn into a wondrous depth,
Far sinking into splendour — without end!
Fabric it seemed of diamond, and of gold,
With alabaster domes and silver spires,
And blazing terrace upon terrace, high
Uplifted; here, serene pavilions bright,
In avenues disposed. there towers begirt
With battlements that on their restless fronts
Bore stars — illumination of all gems!
By earthly nature had the effect been wrought
Upon the dark materials of the storm
Now pacified; on them, and on the coves,
And mountain-steeps and summits, whereunto
The vapours had receded — taking there
Their station under a cerulean sky, etc., etc.

The sublime circumstance — "battlements that on their restless fronts bore stars" — might have been copied from my architectural dreams, for it often occurred. We hear it reported of Dryden, and of Fuseli in modern times, that they thought proper to eat raw meat for the sake of obtaining splendid dreams: B not in print version how much better, for such a purpose, to have eaten opium, which yet I do not remember that any poet is recorded to have done, except the dramatist Shadwell; C not in print version and in ancient days, Homer is, I think, rightly reputed to have known the virtues of opium. D not in print version

To my architecture succeeded dreams of lakes, and silvery expanses of water: these haunted me so much, that I feared (though possibly it will appear ludicrous to a medical man) that some dropsical state or tendency of the brain might thus be making itself (to use a metaphysical word) objective, and the sentient organ project itself as its own object. For two months I suffered greatly in my head — a part of my bodily structure which had hitherto been so clear from all touch or taint of weakness (physically, I mean), that I used to say of it, as the last Lord Orford [Horatio Walpole, 1723-1809] said of his stomach, that it seemed likely to survive the rest of my person. Till now I had never felt a headache even, or any the slightest pain, except rheumatic pains caused by my own folly. However, I got over this attack, though it must have been verging on something very dangerous.

The waters now changed their character, — from translucent lakes, shining like mirrors, they now became seas and oceans. And now came a tremendous change, which, unfolding itself slowly like a scroll, through many months, promised an abiding torment; and, in fact, it never left me until the winding up of my case. Hitherto the human face had often mixed in my dreams, but not despotically, nor with any special power of tormenting. But now that which I have called the tyranny of the human face, began to unfold itself. Perhaps some part of my London life might be answerable for this. Be that as it may, now it was that upon the rocking waters of the ocean the human face began to appear; the sea appeared paved with innumerable faces, upturned to the heavens; faces, imploring, wrathful, despairing, surged upwards by thousands, by myriads, by generations, by centuries: my agitation was infinite, my mind tossed, and swayed with the ocean.

May, 1818. — The Malay had been a fearful enemy for months. I have been every night, through his means, transported into Asiatic scenes. I know not whether others share in my feelings on this point; but I have often thought that if I were compelled to forego England, and to live in China, and among Chinese manners and modes of life and scenery, I should go mad. The causes of my horror lie deep, and some of them must be common to others. Southern Asia, in general, is the seat of awful images and associations. As the cradle of the human race, it would alone have a dim and reverential feeling connected with it. But there are other reasons. No man can pretend that the wild, barbarous, and capricious superstitions of Africa, or of savage tribes elsewhere, affect him in the way that he is affected by the ancient, monumental, cruel, and elaborate religions of Indostan, etc. The mere antiquity of Asiatic things, of their institutions, histories, modes of faith, etc., is so impressive, that to me the vast age of the race and name overpowers the sense of youth in the individual. A young Chinese seems to me an antediluvian man renewed. Even Englishmen, though not bred in any knowledge of such institutions, cannot but shudder at the mystic sublimity of castes that have flowed apart, and refused to mix, through such immemorial tracts of time; nor can any man fail to be awed by the names of the Ganges, or the Euphrates. It contributes much to these feelings, that Southern Asia is, and has been for thousands of years, the part of the earth most swarming with human life, the great officina gentium [workshop of the world]. Man is a weed in those regions. The vast empires, also, into which the enormous population of Asia has always been cast, give a further sublimity to the feelings associated with all oriental names or images. In China, over and above what it has in common with the rest of Southern Asia, I am terrified by the modes of life, by the manners, and the barrier of utter abhorrence, and want of sympathy, placed between us by feelings deeper than I can analyze. I could sooner live with lunatics, or brute animals. All this, and much more than I can say, or have time to say, the reader must enter into, before he can comprehend the unimaginable horror which these dreams of oriental imagery, and mythological tortures, impressed upon me. Under the connecting feeling of tropical heat and vertical sunlights, I brought together all creatures, birds, beasts, reptiles, all trees and plants, usages and appearances, that are found in all tropical regions, and assembled them together in China or Indostan. G not in print version From kindred feelings, I soon brought Egypt and all her gods under the same law. I was stared at, hooted at, grinned at, chattered at, by monkeys, by paroquets, by cockatoos. I ran into pagodas, and was fixed, for centuries, at the summit, or in secret rooms: I was the idol; I was the priest; I was worshipped; I was sacrificed. I fled from the wrath of Brama through all the forests of Asia: Vishnu hated me; Seva laid wait for me. H not in print version I came suddenly upon Isis and Osiris: I had done a deed, they said, which the ibis and the crocodile trembled at. I not in print version I was buried for a thousand years, in stone coffins, with mummies and sphinxes, in narrow chambers at the heart of eternal pyramids. I was kissed, with cancerous kisses, by crocodiles; and laid, confounded with all unutterable slimy things, amongst reeds and Nilotic mud [mude from the Nile].

I thus give the reader some slight abstraction of my oriental dreams, which always filled me with such amazement at the monstrous scenery that horror seemed absorbed, for a while, in sheer astonishment. Sooner or later came a reflux of feeling that swallowed up the astonishment, and left me, not so much in terror, as in hatred and abomination of what I saw. Over every form, and threat, and punishment, and dim, sightless, incarceration, brooded a sense of eternity and infinity that drove me into an oppression as of madness. Into these dreams only, it was, with one or two slight exceptions, that any circumstances of physical horror entered. All before had been moral and spiritual terrors. But here the main agents were ugly birds, or snakes, or crocodiles, especially the last. The cursed crocodile became to me the object of more horror than almost all the rest. I was compelled to live with him; and (as was always the case, almost, in my dreams) for centuries. I escaped sometimes, and found myself in Chinese houses with cane tables, etc. All the feet of the tables, sofas, etc., soon became instinct with life: the abominable head of the crocodile, and his leering eyes, looked out at me, multiplied into a thousand repetitions; and I stood loathing and fascinated. And so often did this hideous reptile haunt my dreams, that many times the very same dream was broken up in the very same way: I heard gentle voices speaking to me (I hear everything when I am sleeping and instantly I awoke: it was broad noon, and my children were standing, hand in hand, at my bedside; come to show me their coloured shoes, or new frocks, or to let me see them dressed for going out. I protest that so awful was the transition from the d — — d crocodile, and the other unutterable monsters and abortions of my dreams, to the sight of innocent human natures and of infancy, that, in the mighty and sudden revulsion of mind, I wept, and could not forbear it, as I kissed their faces.

June, 1819. — I have had occasion to remark, at various periods of my life, that the deaths of those whom we love, and, indeed, the contemplation of death generally, is (c&ealig;teris paribus [all other things being equal]) more affecting in summer than in any other season of the year. And the reasons are these three, I think: first, that the visible heavens in summer appear far higher, more distant, and (if such a solecism may be excused) more infinite; the clouds by which chiefly the eye expounds the distance of the blue pavilion stretched over our heads are in summer more voluminous, massed, and accumulated in far grander and more towering piles; secondly, the light and the appearances of the declining and the setting sun are much more fitted to be types and characters of the infinite; and thirdly (which is the main reason), the exuberant and riotous prodigality of life naturally forces the mind more powerfully upon the antagonist thought of death, and the wintry sterility of the grave. For it may be observed, generally, that wherever two thoughts stand related to each other by a law of antagonism, and exist, as it were, by mutual repulsion, they are apt to suggest each other. On these accounts it is that I find it impossible to banish the thought of death when I am walking alone in the endless days of summer; and any particular death, if not more affecting, at least haunts my mind more obstinately and besiegingly in that season. Perhaps this cause, and a slight incident which I omit, might have been the immediate occasions of the following dream, to which, however, a predisposition must always have existed in my mind; but having been once roused, it never left me, and split into a thousand fantastic varieties, which often suddenly re-united, and comprised again the original dream.

I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May; that it was Easter Sunday, L not in print version) and as yet very early in the morning. I was standing, as it seemed to me, at the door of my own cottage. Right before me lay the very scene which could really be commanded from that situation, but exalted, as was usual, and solemnized by the power of dreams. There were the same mountains, and the same lovely valley at their feet; but the mountains were raised to a more than Alpine height, and there was interspace far larger between them of meadows and forest lawns; the hedges were rich with white roses; and no living creature was to be seen, excepting that in the green church-yard there were cattle tranquilly reposing upon the verdant graves, and particularly round about the grave of a child whom I had tenderly loved, just as I had really beheld them, a little before sunrise, in the same summer, when that child died. I gazed upon the well-known scene, and I said aloud (as I thought) to myself, "It yet wants much of sunrise; and it is Easter Sunday; and that is the day on which they celebrate the first-fruits of resurrection. I will walk abroad; old griefs shall be forgotten today; for the air is cool and still, and the hills are high, and stretch away to heaven; and the forest glades are as quiet as the churchyard; and with the dew I can wash the fever from my forehead, and then I shall be unhappy no longer." And I turned, as if to open my garden gate; and I immediately saw upon the left a scene far different; but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony with the other. The scene was an oriental one; and there also it was Easter Sunday, and very early in the morning. And at a vast distance were visible, as a stain upon the horizon, the domes and cupolas of a great city — an image of faint abstraction, caught, perhaps, in childhood, from some picture of Jerusalem. And not a bow-shot from me, upon a stone, and shaded by Judean palms, there sat a woman; and I looked, and it was — Ann! She fixed her eyes upon me earnestly; and I said to her, at length, "So, then, I have found you, at last." I waited; but she answered me not a word. Her face was the same as when I saw it last, and yet again, how different! Seventeen years ago, when the lamp-light fell upon her face, as for the last time I kissed her lips (lips, Ann, that to me were not polluted!), her eyes were streaming with tears; — her tears were now wiped away; she seemed more beautiful than she was at that time, but in all other points the same, and not older. Her looks were tranquil, but with unusual solemnity of expression, and I now gazed upon her with some awe; but suddenly her countenance grew dim, and, turning to the mountains, I perceived vapours rolling between us; in a moment, all had vanished; thick darkness came on; and in the twinkling of an eye I was far away from mountains, and by lamplight, in Oxford Street, walking again with Ann — just as we walked seventeen years before, when we were both children.

As a final specimen, I cite one of a different character, from 1820.

The dream commenced with a music which now I often heard in dreams — a music of preparation and of awakening suspense; a music like the opening of the Coronation Anthem, and which, like that gave the feeling of a vast march, of infinite cavalcades filing off, and the tread of innumerable armies. The morning was come of a mighty day — a day of crisis and of final hope for human nature, then suffering some mysterious eclipse, and labouring in some dread extremity. Somewhere, I knew not where — somehow, I knew not how — by some beings, I knew not whom — a battle, a strife, an agony, was conducting, — was evolving like a great drama, or piece of music; with which my sympathy was the more insupportable from my confusion as to its place, its cause, its nature, and its possible issue. I, as is usual in dreams (where, of necessity, we make ourselves central to every movement), had the power, and yet had not the power, to decide it. I had the power, if I could raise myself, to will it; and yet again had not the power, for the weight of twenty Atlantics was upon me, or the oppression of inexpiable guilt. "Deeper than ever plummet sounded" [The Tempest. Act iii. Sc. 3], I lay inactive. Then, like a chorus, the passion deepened. Some greater interest was at stake; some mightier cause than ever yet the sword had pleaded, or trumpet had proclaimed. Then came sudden alarms; hurryings to and fro; trepidations of innumerable fugitives. I knew not whether from the good cause or the bad; darkness and lights; tempest and human faces; and at last, with the sense that all was lost, female forms, and the features that were worth all the world to me, and but a moment allowed, — and clasped hands, and heart-breaking partings, and then — everlasting farewells! and, with a sigh, such as the caves of hell sighed when the incestuous mother uttered the abhorred name of death, the sound was reverberated — everlasting farewells! and again, and yet again reverberated — everlasting farewells!

And I awoke in struggles, and cried aloud — "I will sleep no more!"

But I am now called upon to wind up a narrative which has already extended to an unreasonable length. Within more spacious limits, the materials which I have used might have been better unfolded; and much which I have not used might have been added with effect. Perhaps, however, enough has been given. It now remains that I should say something of the way in which this conflict of horrors was finally brought to its crisis. The reader is already aware (from a passage near the beginning of the introduction to the first part) that the opium-eater has, in some way or other, "unwound, almost to its final links, the accursed chain which bound him." N not in print version By what means? To have narrated this, according to the original intention, would have far exceeded the space which can now be allowed. It is fortunate, as such a cogent reason exists for abridging it, that I should, on a maturer view of the case, have been exceedingly unwilling to injure, by any such unaffecting details, the impression of the history itself, as an appeal to the prudence and the conscience of the yet unconfirmed opium-eater, or even (though a very inferior consideration) to injure its effect as a composition. The interest of the judicious reader will not attach itself chiefly To the subject of the fascinating spells, but to the fascinating power. Not the opium-eater, but the opium, is the true hero of the tale, and the legitimist centre on which the interest revolves. The object was to display the marvellous agency of opium, whether for pleasure or for pain; if that is done, the action of the piece has closed.

However, as some people, in spite of all laws to the contrary, will persist in asking what became of the opium-eater, and in what state he now is, I answer for him thus: The reader is aware that opium had long ceased to found its empire on spells of pleasure; it was solely by the tortures connected with the attempt to abjure it, that it kept its hold. Yet, as other tortures, no less, it may be thought, attended the non-abjuration of such a tyrant, a choice only of evils was left; and that might as well have been adopted, which, however terrific in itself, held out a prospect of final restoration to happiness. This appears true; but good logic gave the author no strength to act upon it. However, a crisis arrived for the author's life, and a crisis for other objects still dearer to him, and which will always be far dearer to him than his life, even now that it is again a happy one. I saw that I must die if I continued the opium: I determined, therefore, if that should be required, to die in throwing it off. How much I was at that time taking, I cannot say; for the opium which I used had been purchased for me by a friend, who afterwards refused to let me pay him; so that I could not ascertain even what quantity I had used within a year. I apprehend, however, that I took it very irregularly, and that I varied from about fifty or sixty grains to one hundred and fifty a day. My first task was to reduce it to forty, to thirty, and, as fast as I could, to twelve grams.

I triumphed; but think not, reader, that therefore my sufferings were ended; nor think of me as of one sitting in a dejected state. Think of me as of one, even when four months had passed, still agitated, writhing, throbbing, palpitating, shattered; and much, perhaps, in the situation of him who has been racked, as I collect the torments of that state from the affecting account of them left by the most innocent sufferer [2] (of the time of James I O not in print version ). Meantime I derived no benefit from any medicine, except one prescribed to me by an Edinburgh surgeon of great eminence, P not in print version namely, ammoniated tincture of valerian. Q not in print version Medical account, therefore, of my emancipation, I have not much to give; and even that little, as managed by a man as ignorant of medicine as myself, would probably tend only to mislead. At all events, it would be misplaced in this situation. The moral of the narrative is addressed to the opium-eater; and therefore, of necessity, limited in its application. If he is taught to fear and tremble, enough has been effected. But he may say, that the issue of my case is at least a proof that opium, after a seventeen years' use, and an eight years' abuse of its powers may still be renounced; and that he may chance to bring to the task greater energy than I did, or that, with a better constitution than mine, he may obtain the same results with less. This may be true; I would not presume to measure the efforts of other men by my own. I heartily wish him more energy; I wish him the same success. Nevertheless I had motives external to myself which he may unfortunately want; and these supplied me with conscientious supports, which mere personal interests might fail to supply to a mind debilitated by opium.

Jeremy Taylor R not in print version conjectures that if may be as painful to be born as to die. I think it probable; and, during the whole period of diminishing the opium, I had the torments of a man passing out of one mode of existence into another. The issue was not death, but a sort of physical regeneration, and, I may add, that ever since, at intervals, I have had a restoration of more than youthful spirits, though under the pressure of difficulties, which, in a less happy state of mind, I should have called misfortunes.

One memorial of my former condition still remains; my dreams are not yet perfectly calm; the dread swell and agitation of the storm have not wholly subsided; the legions that encamped in them are drawing off but not all departed; my sleep is tumultuous, and like the gates of Paradise to our first parents when looking back from afar, it is still (in the tremendous line of Milton) —

With dreadful faces thronged and fiery arms. S not in print version

The proprietors of this little work having determined on reprinting it, some explanation seems called for, to account for the nonappearance of a Third Part, promised in the "London Magazine" T not in print version of December last; and the more so, because the proprietors, under whose guarantee that promise was issued, might otherwise be implicated in the blame — little or much — attached to its non-fulfilment. This blame, in mere justice, the author takes wholly upon himself. What may be the exact amount of the guilt which he thus appropriates, is a very dark question to his own judgment, and not much illuminated by any of the masters of casuistry whom he has consulted on the occasion. On the one hand, it seems generally agreed that a promise is binding in the inverse ratio of the numbers to whom it is made: for which reason it is that we see many persons break promises without scruple that are made to a whole nation, who keep their faith religiously in all private engagements, — breaches of promise towards the better party being committed at a man's own peril: on the other hand, the only parties interested in the promises of an author are his readers, and these it is a point of modesty in any author to believe as few as possible; or perhaps only one, in which case any promise imposes a sanctity of moral obligation which it is shocking to think of. Casuistry dismissed, however, — the author throws himself on the indulgent consideration of all who may conceive themselves aggrieved by his delay, in the following account of his condition from the end of last year, when the engagement was made, up nearly to the present time. For any purpose of self-excuse, it might be sufficient to say, that intolerable bodily suffering had totally disabled him for almost any exertion of mind, more especially for such as demand and presuppose a pleasurable and a genial state of feeling; but as a case that may by possibility contribute a trifle to the medical history of opium in a further stage of its action than can often have been brought under the notice of professional men, he has judged that it might be acceptable to some readers to have it described more at length. Fiat experimentum in corpore vili [Let the experiment be made on a body of no value]. is a just rule where there is any reasonable presumption of benefit to arise on a large scale. What the benefit may be, will admit of a doubt; but there can be none as to the value of the body, for a more worthless body than his own, the author is free to confess, cannot be. It is his pride to believe, that it is the very ideal of a base, crazy, despicable human system, that hardly ever could have been meant to be seaworthy for two days under the ordinary storms and wear-and-tear of life! and, indeed, if that were the creditable way of disposing of human bodies, he must own that he should almost be ashamed to bequeath his wretched structure to any respectable dog. But now to the case, which, for the sake of avoiding the constant recurrence of a cumbersome periphrasis, the author will take the liberty of giving in the first person.

Those who have read the "Confessions" will have closed them with the impression that I had wholly renounced the use of opium. This impression I meant to convey, and that for two reasons: first, because the very act of deliberately recording such a state of suffering necessarily presumes in the recorder a power of surveying his own case as a cool spectator, and a degree of spirits for adequately describing it, which it would be inconsistent to suppose in any person speaking from the station of an actual sufferer; secondly, because I, who had descended from so large a quantity as eight thousand drops to so small a one (comparatively speaking) as a quantity ranging between three hundred and one hundred and sixty drops, might well suppose that the victory was in effect achieved. In suffering my readers, therefore, to think of me as of a reformed opium-eater, I left no impression but what I shared myself, and, as may be seen, even this impression was left to be collected from the general tone of the conclusion, and not from any specific words, which are in no instance at variance with the literal truth. In no long time after that paper was written, I became sensible that the effort which remained would cost me far more energy than I had anticipated, and the necessity for making it was more apparent every month. In particular, I became aware of an increasing callousness or defect of sensibility in the stomach: and this I imagined might imply a schirrous state [stomach cancer] of that organ either formed or forming. An eminent physician, to whose kindness I was, at that time, deeply indebted, informed me that such a termination of my case was not impossible, though likely to be forestalled by a different termination, in the event of my continuing the use of opium. Opium, therefore, I resolved wholly to abjure, as soon as I should find myself at liberty to bend my undivided attention and energy to this purpose. It was not, however, until the 24th of June last that any tolerable concurrence of facilities for such an attempt arrived. On that day I began my experiment, having previously settled in my own mind that I would not flinch, but would "stand up to the scratch," under any possible "punishment." X not in print version I must premise, that about one hundred and seventy or one hundred and eighty drops had been my ordinary allowance for many months. Occasionally I had run up as high as five hundred, and once nearly to seven hundred. In repeated preludes to my final experiment I had also gone as low as one hundred drops, but had found it impossible to stand it beyond the fourth day, which, by the way, I have always found more difficult to get over than any of the preceding three. I went off under easy sail — one hundred and thirty drops a day for three days; on the fourth I plunged at once to eighty. The misery which I now suffered "took the conceit" out of me, at once; and for about a month I continued off and on about this mark; then I sunk to sixty, and the next day to — none at all. This was the first day for nearly ten years that I had existed without Opium. I persevered in my abstinence for ninety hours; that is, upwards of half a week. Then I took — — ask me not how much; say, ye severest, what would ye have done? Then I abstained again; then took about twenty-five drops; then abstained; and so on.

Meantime, the symptoms which attended my case for the first six weeks of the experiment were these: enormous irritability and excitement of the whole system; the stomach, in particular, restored to a full feeling of vitality and sensibility, but often in great pain; unceasing restlessness night and day; sleep — I scarcely knew what it was — three hours out of the twenty-four was the utmost I had, and that so agitated and shallow that I heard every sound that was near me; lower jaw constantly swelling; mouth ulcerated; and many other distressing symptoms that would be tedious to repeat, amongst which, however, I must mention one, because it had never failed to accompany any attempt to renounce opium, — namely, violent sternutation [sneezing]. This now became exceedingly troublesome; sometimes lasting for two hours at once, and recurring at least twice or three times a day. I was not much surprised at this, on recollecting what I had somewhere heard or read, that the membrane which lines the nostrils is a prolongation of that which lines the stomach; whence, I believe, are explained the inflammatory appearances about the nostrils of dram-drinkers. The sudden restoration of its original sensibility to the stomach expressed itself, I suppose, in this way. It is remarkable, also, that, during the whole period of years through which I had taken opium, I had never once caught cold (as the phrase is), nor even the slightest cough. But now a violent cold attacked me, and a cough soon after. In an unfinished fragment of a letter begun about this time to — — , I find these words: — "You ask me to write the — — — — . Do you know Beaumont and Fletcher's play of Thierry and Theodoret? Z not in print version There you will see my case as to sleep; nor is it much of an exaggeration in other features. I protest to you that I have a greater influx of thoughts in one hour at present than in a whole year under the reign of opium. It seems as though all the thoughts which had been frozen up for a decade of years by opium had now, according to the old fable, been thawed at once, such a multitude stream in upon me from all quarters. Yet such is my impatience and hideous irritability, that, for one which I detain and write down, fifty escape me. In spite of my weariness from suffering and want of sleep, I cannot stand still or sit for two minutes together. 'I nunc, et versus tecum meditare canoros ["Now, amid these distractions, contemplate singable verses from within yourself."'" — Horace, Epistles book 2, line 76.]

At this stage of my experiment I sent to a neighbouring surgeon, requesting that he would come over to see me. In the evening he came, and after briefly stating the case to him, I asked this question: Whether he did not think that the opium might have acted as a stimulus to the digestive organs; and that the present state of suffering in the stomach, which manifestly was the cause of the inability to sleep, might arise from indigestion? His answer was, — No: on the contrary, he thought that the suffering was caused by digestion itself, which should naturally go on below the consciousness, but which, from the unnatural state of the stomach, vitiated by so long a use of opium, was become distinctly perceptible. This opinion was plausible, and the unintermitting nature of the suffering disposes me to think that it was true; for, if it had been any mere irregular affection of the stomach, it should naturally have intermitted occasionally, and constantly fluctuated as to degree. The intention of nature, as manifested in the healthy state, obviously is, to withdraw from our notice all the vital motions, such as the circulation of the blood, the expansion and contraction of the lungs, the peristaltic action of the stomach, etc.; and opium, it seems, is able in this, as in other instances, to counteract her purposes. By the advice of the surgeon, I tried bitters. bb not in print version For a short time these greatly mitigated the feelings under which I laboured; but about the forty-second day of the experiment the symptoms already noticed began to retire, and new ones to arise of a different and far more tormenting class; under these, with but a few intervals of remission, I have since continued to suffer. But I dismiss them undescribed for two reasons: first, because the mind revolts from retracing circumstantially any sufferings from which it is removed by too short or by no interval. To do this with minuteness enough to make the review of any use, would be indeed infandum renovare dolorem ["Now, amid these distractions, contemplate singable verses from within yourself." — Horace, Epistles book 2, line 76], and possibly without a sufficient motive: for, secondly, I doubt whether this latter state be any way referable to opium, positively considered, or even negatively; that is, whether it is to be numbered amongst the last evils from the direct action of opium, or even amongst the earliest evils consequent upon a want of opium in a system long deranged by its use. Certainly one part of the symptoms might be accounted for from the time of year (August); for though the summer was not a hot one, yet in any case the sum of all the heat funded (if one may say so) during the previous months, added to the existing heat of that month, naturally renders August in its better half the hottest part of the year; and it so happened that the excessive perspiration, which even at Christmas attends any great reduction in the daily quantum of opium, and which in July was so violent as to oblige me to use a bath five or six times a day, had about the setting in of the hottest season wholly retired, on which account any bad effect of the heat might be the more unmitigated. Another symptom, namely, what in my ignorance I call internal rheumatism (sometimes affecting the shoulders, etc., but more often appearing to be seated in the stomach), seemed again less probably attributable to the opium, or the want of opium, than to the dampness of the house[3] which I inhabit, which had about that time attained its maximum, July having been, as usual, a month of incessant rain in our most rainy part of England.

Under these reasons for doubting whether opium had any connection with the latter stage of my bodily wretchedness — (except, indeed, as an occasional cause, as having left the body weaker and more crazy, and thus predisposed to any mal-influence whatever), — I willingly spare my reader all description of it: let it perish to him; and would that I could as easily say, let it perish to my own remembrances, that any future hours of tranquillity may not be disturbed by too vivid an ideal of possible human misery!

So much for the sequel of my experiment; as to the former stage, in which properly lies the experiment and its application to other cases I must request my reader not to forget the reasons for which I have recorded it. These were two. 1st, a belief that I might add some trifle to the history of opium as a medical agent; in this I am aware that I have not at all fulfilled my own intentions, in consequence of the torpor of mind, pain of body, and extreme disgust to the subject, which besieged me whilst writing that part of my paper; which part being immediately sent off to the press (distant about five degrees of latitude), cannot be corrected or improved. But from this account, rambling as it may be, it is evident that thus much of benefit may arise to the persons most interested in such a history of opium, — namely, to opium-eaters in general, — that it establishes, for their consolation and encouragement, the fact that opium may be renounced, and without greater sufferings than an ordinary resolution may support; and by a pretty rapid course[4] of descent.

To communicate this result of my experiment, was my foremost purpose, and, as a purpose collateral to this, I wished to explain how it had become impossible for me to compose a Third Part in time to accompany this republication: for during the very time of this experiment, the proof-sheets of this reprint were sent to me from London; and such was my inability to expand or to improve them, that I could not even bear to read them over with attention enough to notice the press errors, or to correct any verbal inaccuracies. These were my reasons for troubling my reader with any record, long or short, of experiments relating to so truly base a subject as my own body; and I am earnest with the reader, that be will not forget them, or so far misapprehend me as to believe it possible that I would condescend to so rascally a subject for its own sake, or, indeed for any less object than that of general benefit to others. Such an animal as the self-observing valetudinarian [person of poor health or who is unduly anxious about health] I know there is. I have met him myself occasionally, and I know that he is the worst imaginable heautontimoroumenos [a blending of words or phrases of similar meaning or use to produce a word or phrase of a new type]; aggravating and sustaining, by calling into distinct consciousness every symptom that would else, perhaps, under a different direction given to the thoughts, become evanescent. But as to myself, so profound is my contempt for this undignified and selfish habit, that I could as little condescend to it as I could to spend my time in watching a poor servant girl, to whom at this moment I hear some lad or other making love at the back of my house. Is it for a Transcendental philosopher to feel any curiosity on such an occasion? Or can I, whose life is worth only eight and a half years' purchase, be supposed to have leisure for such trivial employments? However, to put this out of question, I shall say one thing which will, perhaps, shock some readers; but I am sure it ought not to do so, considering the motives on which I say it. No man, I suppose, employs much of his time on this phenomena of his own body without some regard for it; whereas the reader sees that, so far from looking upon mine with any complacency or regard, I hate it and make it the object of my bitter ridicule and contempt; and I should not be displeased to know that the last indignities which the law inflicts upon the bodies of the worst malefactors might hereafter fall upon it. And in testification of my sincerity in saying this, I shall make the following offer. Like other men, I have particular fancies about the place of my burial; having lived chiefly in a mountainous region, I rather cleave to the conceit that a grave in a green churchyard amongst the ancient and solitary hills will be a sublimer and more tranquil place of repose for a philosopher than any in the not in print version hideous Golgothas of London. Yet, if the gentlemen of Surgeons' Hall think that any benefit can redound to their science from inspecting the appearances in the body of an opium eater, let them speak but a word, and I will take care that not in print version mine shall be legally secured to them — that is, as soon as I have done with it myself. Let them not hesitate to express their wishes upon any scruples of false delicacy and consideration for my feelings; I assure them that they will do me too much honour by "demonstrating" on such a crazy body as mine; and it will give me pleasure to anticipate this posthumous revenge and insult inflicted upon that which has caused me so much suffering in this life. Such bequests are not common; reversionary benefits contingent upon the death of the testator are indeed dangerous to announce in many cases. Of this we have a remarkable instance in the habits of a Roman prince, who used, upon any notification made to him by rich persons, that they had left him a handsome estate in their wills, to express his entire satisfaction at such arrangements, and his gracious acceptance of those royal legacies; but then, if the testators neglected to give him immediate possession of the property, — if they traitorously "persisted in living" (si vivere perseverarent, as Suetonius expresses it ii not in print version), he was highly provoked, and took his measures accordingly. In those times, and from one of the worst of the C&ealig;sars, we might expect such conduct; but I am sure that, from English surgeons at this day, I need look for no expressions of impatience, or of any other feelings but such as are answerable to that pure love of science and all its interests, which induces me to make such an offer.


1. The reader must remember what I here mean by thinking; because, else, this would be a very presumptuous expression. England, of late, has been rich to excess in fine thinkers, in the departments of creative and combining thought; but there is a sad dearth of masculine thinkers in any analytic path. A Scotchman of eminent name has lately told us, that he is obliged to quit even mathematics, for want of encouragement.

§ Scotchman of eminent name — This is probably a reference to Sir John Lesley who was born in Fife in 1766. He was appointed Professor of Mathematics at Edinburgh in 1805 and then became Professor of Natural Philosophy in 1819. He held this position until his death in 1832. I am grateful to Dr Robert Morrison of Arcadia University for this information. back

2. William Lithgow; his book ("Travels," etc.) is ill and pedantically written; but the account of his own sufferings on the rack at Malaga is overpoweringly affecting.
3. In saying this, I meant no disrespect to the individual house, as the reader will understand when I tell him that, with the exception of one or two princely mansions, and some few inferior ones that have been coated with Roman cement, I am not acquainted with any house in this mountainous district which is wholly waterproof. The architecture of books, I flatter myself, is conducted on just principles in this country; but for any other architecture, it is in a barbarous state, and, what is worse, in a retrograde state.
4. On which last notice I would remark that mine was too rapid, and the suffering therefore needlessly aggravated; or rather, perhaps, it was not sufficiently continuous and equably graduated. But, that the reader may judge for himself, and, above all, that the opium-eater, who is preparing to retire from business, may have every sort of information before him, I subjoin my diary.
        FIRST WEEK.                            SECOND WEEK.
                Drops of Laud.                        Drops of Laud.
Mond. June 24  .  .  130              Mond. July  1  .  .   80
        "  25  .  .  140                      "   2  .  .   80
        "  26  .  .  130                      "   3  .  .   90
        "  27  .  .   80                      "   4  .  .  100
        "  28  .  .   80                      "   5  .  .   80
        "  29  .  .   80                      "   6  .  .   80
        "  30  .  .   80                      "   7  .  .   80

        THIRD WEEK.                           FOURTH WEEK.
                Drops of Laud.                       Drops of Laud.
Mond. July  8  .  .  300              Mond. July 15  .  .   76
        "   9  .  .   50                      "  16  .  .   73½
        "  10     { Hiatus                    "  17  .  .   73½
        "  11         in                      "  18  .  .   70
        "  12     Manuscript }                "  19  .  .  240
        "  13                                 "  20  .  .   80
        "  14  .  .   76                      "  21  .  .  350

        FIFTH WEEK.
                Drops of Laud.
Mond. July 22  .  .   60
        "  23  .  . none
        "  24  .  . none
        "  25  .  . none
        "  26  .  .  240
        "  27  .  . none
What mean these abrupt relapses, the reader will ask, perhaps, to such numbers as 300, 350. etc.? The impulse to these relapses was mere infirmity of purpose: the motive, were any motive blended with this impulse, was either the principle of reculer pour mieux sauter [drawing back in order to leap forward]) — (for under the torpor of a large dose, which lasted for a day or two, a less quantity satisfied the stomach, which, on awaking, found itself partly accustomed to this new ration), — or else it was this principle — that of sufferings otherwise equal, those will be borne best which meet with a mood of anger; now, whenever I ascended to any large dose, I was furiously incensed on the following day, and could then have borne anything.


a Shelley's Revolt of Islam — In 1817, Shelley produced Laon and Cythna, a long narrative poem which contained references to incest as well as making attacks on religion. Because if this it was withdrawn after only a few copies were published. It was later edited and reissued as The Revolt of Islam in 1818. back

e John Milton: Samson Agonistes/Paradise Regained — Milton published these books in one volume in 1671. The subject matter of Samson Agonistes (Samson in Agony) may be summarised as follows:

Samson had been taken captive, blinded and put in the prison at Gaza where he was made to drive a corn mill. On a Festival day he came out to sit a while and bemoan his condition ("O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon, Irrecoverably dark, total Eclipse Without all hope of day!"). Whilst there he is visited by friends and members of his tribe who try to comfort him. Samson's father, Manoa, then tells Samson of his intention to ransom his son. The Feast was dedicated by the Philistines as a day of thanksgiving for their deliverance from the hands of Samson who is ordered to go to the Feast to demonstrate his strength to the people. Having refused at first, Samson realised that the command was from God; he pulled down the temple and in so doing, killed himself.

In Paradise Lost, Milton wrote about the fall of the human race through the disobedience of Adam and Eve; he then wrote about the restoration of the human race through the perfect obedience of Jesus Christ in Paradise Regained. This book deals with the Temptation of Jesus in the wilderness and features a debate between Christ and Satan. Christ triumphs over Satan, rejecting his temptations and refuting his arguments. When Satan withdraws defeated, the angels hail the triumph of Christ, and bid him now begin his work of reconciling and redeeming mankind. back

f M's — Margaret (Peggy) his wife. back

g Spinoza's De Emendatione Humani Intellectšs — Benedict (or Baruch) Spinoza (1632-1677) was the son of a Jewish merchant from Amsterdam. His father and grandfather were forced to adopt Christianity in post-Islamic Spain but secretly remained Jewish. Spinoza was educated in a traditional Jewish Curriculum. Spinoza's theological ideas brought him into conflict with Jewish leaders. Spinoza contended that the scriptures do not maintain that God has no body, that angels exist, or that the soul is immortal. After failed attempts to silence him, he was excommunicated in 1656. For a time Spinoza was associated with a former Jesuit who ran a school: Spinoza used this as an opportunity to further his own education and to supplement his income by teaching in the school. At this time he also learned the trade of lens grinding for glasses and telescopes. As his ideas developed, he went on retreat for three years to formulate them in writing, producing A Short Treatise on God, Man and his Well-Being, and De Emendatione Humani Intellectšs (On the Improvement of the Understanding). He also composed a version of Descartes' Principles of Philosophy. Starting in 1665, Spinoza composed his greatest work, the Ethics. Spinoza died in 1677 from a lung disease, the result of breathing dust from lens grinding. back

h bray their fungous heads to powder — beat their spongy heads to pulp (in the modern idiom). back

i Mr Ricardo's book — In 1815 Ricardo responded to the Corn Laws by publishing his Essay on the Influence of a Low Price of Corn on the Profits of Stock, in which he argued that raising the duties on imported grain had the effect of increasing the price of corn and hence increasing the incomes of landowners and the aristocracy at the expense of the working classes and the rising industrial class. In 1817 he published Principles of Political Economy and Taxation in which he analysed the the distribution of money among the landlords, workers, and owners of capital. He found the relative domestic values of commodities were dominated by the quantities of labour required in their production, rent being eliminated from the costs of production. He concluded that profits varied inversely with wages. back

j "Thou art the man!" — probably from the Vulgate Bible, "Ecce homo", the words spoken by Pontius Pilate of Jesus. The text may be found in the Gospel of St John, 19 vv.1-6:

1 Pilate then took Jesus and scourged Him. 2 And the soldiers twisted together a crown of thorns and put it on His head, and put a purple robe on Him; 3 and they began to come up to Him and say, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and to give Him slaps in the face. 4 Pilate came out again and said to them, "Behold, I am bringing Him out to you so that you may know that I find no guilt in Him." 5 Jesus then came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, "Behold, the Man!" 6 So when the chief priests and the officers saw Him, they cried out saying, "Crucify, crucify!" Pilate said to them, "Take Him yourselves and crucify Him, for I find no guilt in Him." back

k a priori — from what goes before; from cause to effect. back

m Circean — from "Circe", the daughter of Helios (the sun) and Perseis (the daughter of Okeanos). In Homer's Odyssey, Odysseus and his crew went ashore on the island of Aiaia hoping to find food and water. Odysseus sent twenty three men to explore the island but only one returned. As the men walked from the beach they could hear singing from Circeís home in a forest glen. Wild lions and wolves came to greet the strangers. The men were charmed by Circe and drank the potions she offered as refreshment. As Circeís drugs took effect the men began to change shape and soon were transformed into swine. Circe herded them into pens and threw them swine feed.

The sole survivor ran back to Odysseus and told the story of the evil goddess and how they would all be turned into swine if they dared to stay on that dangerous island. Odysseus was not afraid; he refused to leave his men as swine and would not risk any of the other men in a fight with Circe. He went to Circeís palace alone but on his way there he met Hermes, who told Odysseus that he could entrap Circe and free his companions if he obeyed the god's orders. Hermes gave Odysseus a potion to counteract Circe's drug. Circe welcomed Odysseus and gave him her potion but Odysseus was protected against it. When Circe thought the drugs had taken effect, she struck Odysseus with her wand to complete the transformation process but Odysseus drew his sword and sprang upon her. The astonished Circe surrendered instantly, released the twenty two pig-men and restored them to their original forms. back

n times before Oedipus or Priam, before Tyre, before Memphis — de Quincey dates these people and places in reverse order. Sophocles' play, Oedipus Tyrannus (King Oedipus) was first performed in about 425 BC; Priam is the King of Troy, a character in Homer's Iliad, written in about 800 BC. The Phoenician city of Tyre was founded in c. 2750 BC and the Egyptian city of Memphis was founded in c. 3100 BC. back

o Midas — When offered a reward by the god Dionysos, King Midas of Phrygia requested that everything he touched might be turned to gold. His request was granted, but as his food and drink became gold from the moment he touched it, he prayed that the gods would take back their gift. He was then ordered to bathe in the Pactolus, and the river ever after rolled over golden sands.

The same King Midas was appointed to judge a musical contest between Apollo and Pan, and gave judgment in favour of Pan; in contempt, Apollo gave the king a pair of ass's ears. Midas hid them under his Phrygian cap; but his hairdresser discovered them, and was so amused that he ran into a meadow where he whispered to the grass, "Midas has ass's ears". The grass repeats the story to the wind every time the wind blows over grass.. back A Phrygian cap

p evanescent circumstances — circumstances that are on the point of vanishing or becoming imperceptible. back

q the dread book of account — The "modern books" seem to be Swedenborg's "Arcana Coelestia" and Coleridge's "Biographia Literaria". The Bible talks of a "Book of Reckoning" or a "Book of Judgement" in which the deeds of men are written and against which their lives will be judged on the Last Day. One example of this is to be found in the Book of Revelation 20 vv. 12-15

12 I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. 13 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. 14 And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. 15 And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire. back

r Livy/Consul Romanus — Titus Livius' (Livy's) History of Rome Bk II gives an account of the rise of the Consuls after they replace the kings. The book culminates in the conflict between the patricians and plebeians. Consuls were the chief Roman magistrates; they presided over the senate and assemblies and Rome's foreign affairs. Consuls also served as Rome's generals on military campaigns. back

s Parliamentary war — the English Civil War of 1642-9 in which parliamentary forces led by Oliver Cromwell (among others) ultimately defeated and then executed the king, Charles I. back

t a certain day in August 1642/Marston Moor/Newbury/Naseby — these are all references to events during the English Civil War. The 'certain day in August' refers to 22 August when Charles I raised his standard at Nottingham Castle; at that point the war between King and Parliament began. The Battle of Marston Moor took place on 2 July 1644 at Long Marston near York. Royalist troops under the Marquis of Newcastle and Prince Rupert fought an allied army of Parliamentary and Scottish troops led by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Lord Manchester. By the time the armies were in position it was late in the day, and the Royalist leaders were convinced that there would not be an attack until the morning. The Parliamentary army surprised the royalists by attacking at about 7 p.m. The fighting lasted for several hours; the Royalists lost 3000 men, plus their artillery. York was forced to surrender to Parliament and the north of England was lost to the king. Prince Rupert lost his reputation of invincibility in battle, but Marston Moor made the reputation of another man; Oliver Cromwell.

There were two battles at Newbury near Gloucester: on 20 September 1643 and again on 27 October 1644. The first battle was a 'draw' but revealed the King's lack of military expertise; the second battle was also inconclusive. The battle of Naseby was fought on 14 June 1645. Naseby was the first and most important battle for the New Model Army commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax, and for Oliver Cromwell. After a whole day of fighting, the King's main field army was destroyed and although fighting dragged on into 1646 the outcome of the war was no longer in doubt. On 30 January 1649 the King was executed on the orders of Parliament. The Civil War divided families and men found themselves fighting relatives in the various battles. It was many years before the divisions of this time were healed. back

u the court of George IV — George IV became Prince Regent in 1811 and ruled in place of his father (George III) until the King's death in 1820; the Prince Regent then became king in his own right until his death in 1830. The court of the Prince Regent was renowned for its decadence; of particular notoriety were the "goings on" at Brighton Pavilion. The fashions of the day called for flimsy dress fabrics, low-cut bodices and virtually no imagination. back

v paludaments — military cloaks worn by Roman generals and chief officers. back

w Paulus or Marius — Consul Paulus was the Roman general at the Battle of Cannae in 216. Marius was a Consul elected from a non-noble family; he led the Roman army in the conquest of Numidia. back

a Regency dress

x alalagmos — a shouting; a shout: thus, they were followed by the Legion shouting out their marching slogans and cheering. back

y Piranesi's "Antiquities of Rome" — Giovanni Battista Piranesi's descriptions of the antiquities of Rome have preserved an important corpus of architectural antiquities but also a cityscape that has disappeared for ever. Influenced by Palladio, Piranesi hoped to become an architect of important classical revival architecture in Rome. He published his studies of extant classical buildings and projects of his own in a series of books. back

z Piranesi's "The Round Tower" — part of a triptych, Carceri (ca. 1749-60)

Although he was born and brought up in Venice, Piranesi went to Rome at the age of twenty and spent the rest of his life in the city. Rome was the inspiration for and subject of most of his etchings that numbered more than one thousand. Piranesi studied architecture, engineering and stage design; his first plans for buildings reflect this background. The impact of classical Roman architecture is reflected in his work. back

A From a great modern poet I cite — the section of poetry is taken from Wordsworth's The Excursion Book 2, "The Solitary" ll. 834-851. A "cerulean sky" is cloudless, pure deep blue or azure. back

B Dryden and Fuseli ... thought proper to eat raw meat for the sake of obtaining splendid dreams — John Dryden (1631-1700) began his career as a professional playwright in 1657; in 1668 he was appointed Poet Laureate at the court of Charles II. He converted to Catholicism in 1686 but on the accession of William and Mary in 1688, his religious convictions cost Dryden his Laureateship when he refused to take the oath of allegiance to the monarchy. Henry Fuseli (1741-1825) was Professor of Painting at the Royal Academy; he is famous for his painting The Nightmare. A friend of William Blake, Fuseli ate raw meat and pork chops before going to bed, to ensure vivid dreams. It is alleged that Dryden also did this.

Salmonella is a common bacterium found in raw meat and causes nausea, stomach cramps, diarrhoea, fever and headache. Other forms of bacteria (botulism, Staphylococcus, toxemia) can cause hallucinations. back

C the dramatist Shadwell — Thomas Shadwell was born in Norfolk in 1642. In 1656 he went to Caius College, Cambridge then entered the Middle Temple in London. After that he undertook some years of travel in Ireland and France. In 1663 he married an actress and in 1668 began his career as a dramatist. He wrote seventeen plays and adapted many of the works of Molière, Corneille, Quinault and Rosimond. Shadwell was Poet Laureate between 1689 and 1692. Weakened by illness, Shadwell resorted to opium to relieve his suffering and died from an overdose in 1692. back

D Homer is ... reputed to have known the virtues of opium — Homer writes of "nepenthe" and the narcotic and analgesic properties of opium were known in ancient Greece. This does not mean necessarily that Homer used opium, however. back

G Indostan — India. Little was known about the culture, history and society of the Orient in the early 19th Century and for the English, most of the non-English speaking world was considered to be uncivilised and 'heathen'. de Quincey reflects the contemporary attitudes towards China and India, gathered from reading the literature of the explorers of the time. back

H Brama/Vishnu/Seva — In the Hindu faith, these gods make up a 'trinity': that is, three different aspects of the Supreme Being. Lord Brahma is the creator and represents the creative principle of the Supreme Being. Lord Vishnu maintains the universe and represents the eternal principle of preservation. Lord Seva represents the principle of dissolution and recreation. back

I Isis and Osiris — In ancient Egyptian religion, Osiris was the god of the dead and Isis was his wife and sister. According to the story, when Osiris was born, a voice cried out that the Lord of the Earth had been born. He became a mighty king and brought civilisation to his people; he then went away to civilise other peoples. He left Egypt under the control of his sister-wife, Isis but his brother, Set, plotted against him and eventually killed Osiris. Isis journeyed far and wide until she found her husband's body. Meanwhile, Horus - the son of Osiris and Isis - had grown to manhood and the eternal fight between good and evil began.

Sebek was the crocodile-headed god, often associated with Set; Thoth was the ibis-headed god. Thoth was the measurer of the earth, the counter of the stars, the keeper and recorder of all knowledge. It was Thoth who was believed to have written important religious texts such as The Book of the Dead. back

L Easter Day 1819 — the feast fell on 11 April that year. back

N "unwound, almost to its final links, the accursed chain which bound him" — in his poem The Four Zoas, Blake writes about being bound by a chain. This may be a reference to Blake's imagery. back

O William Lithgow; "Travels," ... the account of his sufferings on the rack at Malaga is affecting. — Lithgow, who came from Lincolnshire, began his journeys in 1609 and claimed to have travelled 36,000 miles. He bathed in the River Jordan , visited the Holy shrines and took home a few souvenirs including "a pair of Garters of the Holy Grave, all richly wrought in Silk and Gold". In about 1820 he was in Malaga (Spain) where he was accused of being a spy. He was questioned and then tortured by being racked. The story appears in Fox's Book of Martyrs. See also footnote 2. James I ruled England from 1604-1625 and was James VI of Scotland. back

P an Edinburgh surgeon of great eminence — this is probably George Bell who treated de Quincey in late 1820 and who enjoyed a profitable practice in Edinburgh for thirty years. I am most grateful to Dr Robert Morrison or Arcadia University for this information. back

Q ammoniated tincture of valerian — The major preparation of the British Pharmacopeia is Tinctura Valerianae Ammoniata, which contains valerian, oil of nutmeg, oil of lemon and ammonia. Grieve says: "it is an extremely nauseous and offensive preparation." Valerian is best-known as a nervine, sedative, anti-hysteric and sleep-aid. back

R Jeremy Taylor — Taylor was born in Cambridge in 1613 and was ordained in 1633. Between 1633 and the ascendency of the Puritans in 1645, he was a Fellow of two Cambridge colleges and chaplain to Archbishop Laud and King Charles I. Under Puritan rule, he was imprisoned three times and forced into retirement as a family chaplain in Wales. After the Restoration, in 1661 he became Bishop of Down and Connor in Ireland. Among his many books on theological, moral, and devotional subjects, the best known are The Rule and Exercises of Holy Living (1650) and The Rule and Exercises of Holy Dying (1651). Many readers reported finding these books of great spiritual benefit back

S With dreadful faces thronged and fiery arms — this is taken from Milton's Paradise Lost, Book 12 ll. 641-9. The section reads:

They, looking back, all the eastern side beheld
Of Paradise, so late their happy seat,
Waved over by that flaming brand; the gate
With dreadful faces thronged, and fiery arms:
Some natural tears they dropt, but wiped them soon;
The world was all before them, where to choose
Their place of rest, and Providence their guide:
They, hand in hand, with wandering steps and slow,
Through Eden took their solitary way. back

T London Magazine — The London Magazine (1820–9), a monthly periodical, had a short but distinguished career, during which time it published the works of writers such as Charles Lamb, Leigh Hunt and Thomas de Quincey. It acted as a rival to the Edinburgh Review and Blackwood’s Magazine. Its editor, John Scott, drew on Blackwood’s for his format and style. back

X I would "stand up to the scratch," under any possible "punishment" — de Quincey is asserting that he would be more than equal to the challenge of weaning himself off opium regardless of the torments that he would have to endure whilst suffering from withdrawal symptoms. back

Z Beaumont and Fletcher's play of Thierry and Theodoret — Francis Beaumont, John Fletcher and Philip Massinger collaborated in the writing of comedies and tragedies between about 1606 and 1625. It is thought that The Tragedy of Thierry, King of France, and His Brother Theodoret was the work of Beaumont and Fletcher. The date of the composition of the play is unknown: it was printed in1621. back


bb (I tried) bitters — Bitters are used as a tonic to aid digestion. They seem to work by increasing secretions in the stomach, gall bladder and intestinal tract. Bitters are actually made by steeping herbs such as Goldenseal or Gentian in vinegar or alcohol.. back

cc infandum renovare dolorem — you command me to revive grief. back

dd valetudinarian — a person of poor health or who is unduly anxious about health . back

ii si vivere perseverarent, as Suetonius expresses it — Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (c. AD 69 - after 122) was a biographer and antiquarian whose writings include De viris illustribus ("Concerning Illustrious Men"), a collection of short biographies of celebrated Roman literary figures, and De vita Caesarum (Lives of the Caesars). The latter, giving details of the lives of the emperors, secured him lasting fame. back


Last modified 17 June 2009