[Note 1, Chapter Three, in print version]

As the example of Robert Calder Campbell's love sonnet reminds us, amatory verse frequently employs conceits in which the beloved replaces God as the reigning divinity. Campbell's poem, at which we looked in the previous chapter, applies types in such a situation as a means of complimenting the beloved. In contrast, Brontë's Jane Eyre applies types to herself once she realizes the consequences of idolatrous love. Just as Jane compared her dwelling in a state of sin to that of the Egyptians who enslaved the Jews, thus disobeying God's will, so now she seems to compare herself to the Virgin Mary, on whom grace begot the divine word. Gerard Manley Hopkins uses precisely such a conceit in "The Wreck of the Deutschland."

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Print version published 1980; web version 1998