Hablot Knight Browne in the 1843-44 serial, and elaborated by seventies illustrator Fred Barnard in The Household Edition, in such illustrations as "I was merely remarking, gentlemen— though it's a point of very little import— that the Queen of England does not happen to live in the Tower of London" (Chapter 21). The Furniss image of Mark Tapley, the second principal figure in the illustration, is both more stylized and less realistic than Barnard's in "Well, sir!" said the Captain, putting his hat a little more on one side, for it was rather tight in the crown: "You're quite a public man I calc'late" (Chapter 32). The closest parallel to the Furniss image of the suffering Martin and his dutiful nurse, but lacking the sardonic American visitor, is Fred Barnard's "Jolly!" (Chapter 33).The conversation between the candid Mark and the persistently nationalistic and dialectal Hannibal Chollop in the Charles Dickens Library Edition volume (9.2 high by 14.6 cm wide, framed), which occupies its own page, facing page 545 in Chapter 33, might be better characterized as Mr. Chollop Visits Mark.by Harry Furniss in The Charles Dickens Library Edition, Volume 7 (1910) — from Chapter 33, "Further Proceedings in Eden, and a Proceeding out of It. Martin Makes a Discovery of Some Importance." Here, self-styled architect Martin Chuzzlewit of Chuzzlewit & Co., Eden, receives a personal call from the rough-and-ready frontiersman, the Bowie-knife-wielding Hannibal Chollop. The delirious Martin,however, is not up to much conversation as he recovers from malarial fever under a blanket as Mark tries to tend him while attending to household chores. And the barely-seen invalid bears little resemblance to the handsome, well-dressed young bourgeois drawn by
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"How do you like our country, Sir?" he inquired, looking at Martin.
"Not at all,"was the invalid's reply.
Chollop continued to smoke without the least appearance of emotion, until he felt disposed to speak again. That time at length arriving, he took his pipe from his mouth, and said:
"I am not surprised to hear you say so. It re–quires An elevation, and A preparation of the intellect. The mind of man must be prepared for Freedom, Mr. Co."
"He addressed himself to Mark; because he saw that Martin, who wished him to go, being already half–mad with feverish irritation, which the droning voice of this new horror rendered almost insupportable, had closed his eyes, and turned on his uneasy bed.
"A little bodily preparation wouldn’t be amiss, either, would it, Sir," said Mark, "in the case of a blessed old swamp like this?"
"Do you con–sider this a swamp, Sir?" inquired Chollop gravely.
"Why yes, Sir," returned Mark. "I haven’t a doubt about it myself."
"The sentiment is quite Europian," said the major, "and does not surprise me; what would your English millions say to such a swamp in England, Sir?"
"They'd say it was an uncommon nasty one, I should think," said Mark; "and that they would rather be inoculated for fever in some other way."
"Europian!" remarked Chollop, with sardonic pity. "Quite Europian!"
And there he sat. Silent and cool, as if the house were his; smoking away like a factory chimney.
Mr. Chollop was, of course, one of the most remarkable men in the country; but he really was a notorious person besides. He was usually described by his friends, in the South and West, as "a splendid sample of our na–tive raw material, Sir," and was much esteemed for his devotion to rational Liberty; for the better propagation whereof he usually carried a brace of revolving pistols in his coat pocket, with seven barrels a–piece. He also carried, amongst other trinkets, a sword-stick, which he called his "Tickler;" and a great knife, which (for he was a man of a pleasant turn of humour) he called "Ripper," in allusion to its usefulness as a means of ventilating the stomach of any adversary in a close contest. He had used these weapons with distinguished effect in several instances, all duly chronicled in the newspapers; and was greatly beloved for the gallant manner in which he had "jobbed out" the eye of one gentleman, as he was in the act of knocking at his own street-door.
Mr. Chollop was a man of a roving disposition; and, in any less advanced community, might have been mistaken for a violent vagabond. But his fine qualities being perfectly understood and appreciated in those regions where his lot was cast, and where he had many kindred spirits to consort with, he may be regarded as having been born under a fortunate star, which is not always the case with a man so much before the age in which he lives. Preferring, with a view to the gratification of his tickling and ripping fancies, to dwell upon the outskirts of society, and in the more remote towns and cities, he was in the habit of emigrating from place to place, and establishing in each some business — usually a newspaper — which he presently sold; for the most part closing the bargain by challenging, stabbing, pistolling, or gouging the new editor, before he had quite taken possession of the property.
He had come to Eden on a speculation of this kind, but had abandoned it, and was about to leave. He always introduced himself to strangers as a worshipper of Freedom; was the consistent advocate of Lynch law, and slavery; and invariably recommended, both in print and speech, the "tarring and feathering" of any unpopular person who differed from himself. He called this "planting the standard of civilization in the wilder gardens of My country."— Chapter 33, "Further Proceedings in Eden, and a Proceeding out of It. Martin Makes a Discovery of Some Importance," p. 537-538.
Commentary: John Bull and The Frontier Uncle Sam
Over the course of a number of illustrated editions of The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit (1844) one may find only a few representations of Dickens's satire on the "civilising" figure of the fully-armed American frontiersman, Hannibal Chollop, most tellingly realised by Sol Eytinge, Jr. (in the 1867 Diamond Edition). Fred Barnard (in the 1872 transatlantic Household Edition) describes both Captain Kedgick and Colonel Diver, but not Hannibal Chollop. Hablot Knight Browne in the original serial presents images of such cartoonish Americans as the journalists Colonel Diver and Jefferson Brick, the land-agent Zephaniah Scadder, and the former slave, Cicero, but not of the Watertoast Society, Lafayette Kettle, or Hannibal Chollop — indeed, the few American chapters have an abundance of quirky characters, so that most of the novel's illustrators have had to be highly selective in illustrating these chapters. American illustrator Felix Octavius Carr Darley in the Sheldon and Company "Household" Edition volumes (1863) elected not to depict any of these Swiftian creations based on Dickens's impressions of Americans on his 1842 reading tour of the eastern United States. In contrast, Barnard — although he fails to describe the frontiersman — includes such minor Americans as the porter at Mrs. Pawkins' boarding-house, Captain Kedgick, and General Fladdock.
The Furniss illustration juxtaposes a less-than-flattering image of the pipe-smoking Yankee (minus his numerous weapons, and carrying only the "sword-stick") and a study of the perspiring, hard-working young Englishman (still wearing his top-hat) with a full washtub to the left and the delirious patient to the right. The impressionistic, vigorously drawn figure of the dynamic Englishman in shirt-sleeves, leaning in the doorway with the light behind him, dominates the composition and contrasts the casual, relaxed pose of his pipe-smoking visitor whose credo is the unchallenged Second Amendment of the American Constitution, "The Right to Bear Arms" (passed 15 December 1791). He is not the shrewd, well-armed, violent desperado of the 1867 Eytinge portrait, and therefore does not represent the lawless ethos of the frontier as explored in many of Dickens's American characters.
Relevant Illustrations, 1843-1872
Left: Hablot Knight Browne's emphasis on the salutary effects of Mark's neighbourliness, Mr. Tapley is Recognised by Some Fellow-Citizens of Eden (Chapter 33, January 1844). Centre: Phiz shows Martin in the grip of Giant Despair in this Mississippi Vanity Fair, The Thriving City of Eden as it Appeared in Fact (Chapter 23, September 1843). Right: Sol Eytinge, Jr.'s perceptive portrait of the lawless frontiersman, Hannibal Chollop (1867). [Click on images to enlarge them.]
Above: Fred Barnard's realisation of the scene in the Eden cabin when Martin, wasted by exhaustion and illness, nearly expires from malaria, "Jolly!" (1872). [Click on the image to enlarge it.]
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Last modified 29January 2016