Charles Dickens's Hard Times: Bibliography of Suggested Readings

Philip V. Allingham, Faculty of Education, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario

Ackroyd, Peter. Dickens. London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1990. Pp. 686-711.

Allingham, Philip V. "Theme, Form, and the Naming of Names in Hard Times for These Times." Dickensian 87, 1 (Spring 1991): 17-31.

Baird, John D. "'Divorce and Matrimonial Causes': An Aspect of Hard Times." Victorian Studies 20 (1977): 401- 412.

Beauchamp, Gorman. "Mechanomorphism in Hard Times." Studies in the Literary Imagination 22, 1 (Spring 1989): 67- 77.

Belcher, Diane Dewhurst. "Dickens's Mrs. Sparsit and the Politics of Service." Dickens Quarterly2 (1985): 92-98.

Belcher, Margaret E. "Bulwer's Mr. Bluff: A Suggestion for Hard Times." Dickensian 78, 2 (Summer 1982): 105- 109.

Benn, J. Miriam. "A Landscape with Figures: Characterization and Expression in Hard Times." Dickens Studies Annual 1 (1970): 168-182.

Bloom, Harold (ed). Modern Critical Interpretations: Charles Dickens' Hard Times . New York: Chelsea House, 1987.

Bony, Alain."Réalité et Imaginaire Dans Hard Times." Études Anglaises 23, 2 (Avril- Juin, 1970): 168-182.

Bornstein, George. "Miscultivated Field and Corrupted Garden: Imagery in Hard Times ." Nineteenth-Century Fiction 26 (September, 1971): 158-170.

Brantlinger, Patrick. "Dickens and the Factories." Nineteenth-Century Fiction 26 (September, 1971): 270-285.

Broich, Ulrich. "Arbeiterbewegung und Reformmodelle: Realitat und Fiktion 1845-1855." Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 10, 1-2 (1985): 73-89.

Butt, John, and Tillotson, Kathleen. " Hard Times: The Problems of a Weekly Serial." Dickens at Work. London: Methuen, 1958. Pp. 201-209.

Butwin, Joseph. " Hard Times: The News and the Novel." Modern Critical Interpretations: Charles Dickens' Hard Times , ed. Harold Bloom. New York:Chelsea House, 1987.

Campbell, Jane. "'Competing Towers of Babel': Some Patterns of Language in Hard Times." English Studies in Canada 10, 4 (December 1984): 416- 435.

Carnall, Geoffrey. "Dickens, Mrs. Gaskell, and the Preston Strike." Victorian Studies8 (1964): 31-38.

Carr, Jean Ferguson. "Writing as a Woman: Dickens, Hard Times, and Feminine Discourses." Dickens Studies Annual 18 (1989): 161-178.

Caserio, Robert L. "Why the Novel Matters. II: The Name of the Horse: Hard Times, Semiotics, and the Supernatural." Novel20, 1 (Fall 1986): 5-23.

Cockshut, A. O. J. " Hard Times -- Dickens's Masterpiece?" The Imagination of Charles Dickens . New York: New York University Press, 1962. Pp. 137-142.

Coles, Nicholas. "The Politics of Hard Times : Dickens the Novelist versus Dickens the Reformer." Dickens Studies Annual, 15 (1986): 145-180.

Collins, Philip. "Good Intentions and Bad Results." Dickens and Education . London: Macmillan, 1963. Pp. 148-155.

--- (ed.). " Hard Times (1854)." Dickens: The Critical Heritage . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971. Pp. 300- 355.

Connor, Steven. "Deconstructing Hard Times ." rpt. in Charles Dickens's Hard Times , ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1987.

Cooperman, Stanley. "Dickens and the Secular Blasphemy." College English 22 (1960): 156-160.

Craig, David. "Notes" for Charles Dickens's Hard Times For These Times . Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973.

Dahmane, Abderrazak. "The Hidden Context of Hard Times: Dickens and John Poole." DAI 43, 12 (June 1983): 3918A.

Davis, Earle. "The Social Microcosmic Pattern." The Flint and the Flame: The Artistry of Charles Dickens . Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1963. Pp. 214- 223.

Deneau, Daniel P. "The Brother-Sister Relationship in Hard Times ." Dickensian 60 (1964): 173-177.

Dickens, Charles. "Schools I Do Not Like" (speech delivered 5 November, 1857). Hard Times, ed. George Ford and Sylvère Monod. New York: W. W. Norton, 1966. Pp. 310-311.

"Dickens in the 'Hard Times' Country." Dickensian 25 (1929): 55-7. [By the Author of "England of Dickens."]

Easson, Angus. Hard Times: Critical Notes and Commentary . London: University of London Press, 1973.

Engle, Monroe. " Hard Times ." The Maturity of Dickens Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1959. Pp. 172-175.

Fabrizio, Richard. "Wonderful No-Meaning: Language and the Psychopathology of the Family in Dickens' Hard Times." Dickens Studies Annual, 16 (1987): 61-94.

"Fancy versus Fact." Dickensian 25 (1929): 96-8.

Fielding, K. J. "The Battle for Preston." Dickensian 50 (September 1954): 159-162.

---. "Dickens and the Department of Practical Art." Modern Language Review 48, 3 (July 1953): 270-277.

---. " Hard Times for the Present." Dickensian 63 (September 1967): 149-152.

---. "Mill and Gradgrind." Nineteenth-Century Fiction, 11 (September, 1956): 148-151.

---. "The Preston Strikers." Dickensian 63 (September 1967): 152-153.

---. "The Weekly Serialization of Dickens's Novels." Dickensian 54 (1958):134-141.

---, and Smith, Anne. " Hard Times and the Factory Controversy: Dickens vs. Harriet Martineau." Nineteenth-Century Fiction 24 (1970): 404- 27.

Fleissner, Robert F. "'Ah humanity!' Dickens and Bartleby Revisited." Research Studies 50, 2 (June 1982): 106-109.

Ford, George, and Monod, Sylvère. "Introduction" to Charles Dickens' Hard Times. New York: W. W. Norton, 1966. Pp. vii-x.

Ford, George H. "Dickens' Hard Times on Television: Problems of Adaptation." Papers on Language and Literature 23, 3 (Summer 1987): 319-331.

Fowler, Roger. "Polyphony and Problematic in Hard Times." The Changing World of Charles Dickens, ed. Robert Giddings. London and Totowa: Vision Press, and Barnes and Noble, 1983. Pp. 91-108.

Friedman, Stanley. "Sad Stephen and Troubled Louisa: Paired Protagonists in Hard Times." Dickens Quarterly 7, 2 (June, 1990): 254-262.

Gibson, John W. " Hard Times: A Further Note." Dickens Studies, 1 (1965): 90- 101.

Gilmour, Robin. "The Gradgrind School: Political Economy in the Classroom." Victoria Studies, 11 (December 1967): 207- 224.

Goldknopf, David. "The Morality of Hypocrisy: The Structure of Hard Times." The Life of the Novel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972. Pp. 143-158.

Gray, Edward (ed.). Twentieth Century Interpretations of Hard Times, a Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1969.

Green, Robert. " Hard Times: The Style of a Sermon." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 11, 4 (Winter 1970): 1375-1396.

Grubb, Gerald Giles. "Dickens' Pattern of Weekly Serialization." English Literary History, 9 (1942): 141-156.

Handley, Graham. Notes on English Literature [No. 35]: Hard Times (Dickens).Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1969.

Harder, Kelsie B. "Charles Dickens names his Characters." Names, 7 (1959): 35-42.

Harvey, William B. "Charles Dickens and the Byronic Hero." Nineteenth-Century Fiction, 24 (1969): 305-316.

Higby, Robert. " Hard Times and Dickens' Concept of Imagination." Dickens Studies Annual , 17 (1988): 91-110.

Hill, T. W. "Notes on Hard Times." Dickensian, 48 (1952): 134-141, 177-185.

Hirsch, David M. " Hard Times and Dr. Leavis." Criticism, 6 (Winter, 1964): 1-6, 14-16.

Hirshfield, Claire. " Hard Times and the Teacher of History: An Interdisciplinary Approach." Dickens Studies Newsletter 13, 2 (1982): 33- 38.

Hochberg, Shifra. "Mrs. Sparsit's Coriolanus Eyebrows and Dickensian Approach to Topicality." Dickensian 87, 1 (423) (Spring 1991): 32-6.

Holloway, John. " Hard Times: A History and a Criticism." Dickens and the Twentieth Century , ed. John Gross and Gabriel Pearson. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962. Pp. 167-71, 173- 4.

Horne, Felicity. "Character and Theme in Hard Times." CRUX, 22, 3 (August, 1988): 56-61.

House, Humphry. " Hard Times (1941)." Dickens: Modern Judgements, ed. A. E. Dyson. Bristol: Macmillan, 1968. Pp. 214-220.

Hurley, Edward. "A Missing Childhood in Hard Times." Victorian Newsletter, 42 (Fall 1972): 11-16.

Ingham, Patricia. "Dialect as 'Realism': Hard Times and the Industrial Novel." Review of English Studies, NS 37, 148 (1986): 518-527.

Jefferson, D. W. "Mr. Gradgrind's Facts." Essays in Criticism, 35, 3 (July, 1985); 197-212.

Johnson, Alan P. " Hard Times: 'Performance' or 'Poetry'?" Dickens Studies Newsletter 5, 1 (May, 1969): 62-80.

Johnson, Edgar H. "Critique of Materialism." Charles Dickens: His Tragedy and Triumph. Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1952. Pp. 801-819.

Johnson, Patricia E. " Hard Times and the Structure of Industrialism: The Novel as Factory." Studies in the Novel, 21 (1989): 128-137.

Kaplan, Fred. Dickens: A Biography. New York: William Morrow, 1988.

Kauffman, Linda. "The Letter and the Spirit in Hard Times and The Sound and the Fury ." Mississippi Quarterly 34, 3 (Summer, 1981): 299-313.

Klingel, Joan E. "Dickens's First Epistle to the Utilitarians." Dickens Quarterly 3, 3 (September 1986): 124-8.

Larson, Janet Karsten. "Identity's Fictions: Naming and Renaming in Hard Times." Dickens Studies Newsletter, 10, 1 (March 1979): 14-19.

Leavis, F. R. " Hard Times : An Analytic Note" in The Great Tradition (London: 1948, pp. 227-248), rpt. in Hard Times, ed. George Ford and Sylvère Monod. New York: W. W. Norton, 1966. Pp. 339-359.

---. "The Novel as Dramatic Poem: Hard Times ." Scrutiny 14 (1947): 185-203.

Lee, Brian. "Billy Budd: The American Hard Times ." English 32, 142 (Spring, 1983): 35- 54.

Lodge, David. "How Successful is Hard Times ?" Working With Structuralism: Essays and Reviews on Nineteenth- and Twentieth-century Literature . Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981. Pp. 37- 45.

---. "The Rhetoric of Hard Times ." The Language of Fiction . New York: Columbia University Press, 1966. Pp. 145-163.

Lougy, Robert E. "Dickens' Hard Times : The Romance as Radical Literature." Dickens Studies Annual, 1 (1970): 237-254.

Magnet, Myron. Dickens and the Social Order . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985.

Malone, Cynthia Northcutt. "The Fixed Eye and the Rolling Eye: Surveillance and Discipline in Hard Times ." Studies in the Novel, 21, 1 (Spring 1989): 14-26.

Matsuoka, Mitsuharu. "On Dickens's Changed View of Society: Fancy and Affection in Hard Times ." Hiroshima Studies in English Language and Literature, 27 (1982): 79-81.

McArthur, Daniel J. "Sleary and His Profession." Dickensian, 25 (1929): 192-197.

McGillis, Roderick F. "Plum Pies and Factories: Cross Connections in Hard Times." Dickens Studies Newsletter, 11 (1980): 102-107.

McMaster, Rowland D. "'Society (Whatever That Was)': Dickens and Society As An Abstraction." Études Anglaises, 23, 2 (April-June 1970): 125-135.

Melada, Ivan. " Hard Times." The Captain of Industry in English Fiction, 1821-1871. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1970. Pp. 110-115.

Miller, J. Hillis. Charles Dickens: The World of His Novels. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958. Pp. 226- 227.

Monod, Sylvère. "Dickens as Social Novelist." Dickens the Novelist. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968. Pp. 444-452.

---. "Dickens at Work on the Text of Hard Times ." Dickensian, 64 (1968): 86-99.

---. "The Evolution of Dickens' Art in Hard Times and A Tale of Two Cities." Dickens the Novelist. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968. Pp. 456- 469.

Naslund, Sena Jeter. "Mr. Sleary's Lisp: A Note on Hard Times." Dickens Studies Newsletter , 12, 2 (June 1981): 43-6.

Notes on Charles Dickens' Hard Times . London: Methuen Educational Ltd., 1970.

Organ, Dennis. "Compression and Explosion: Pattern in Hard Times." RE: Artes Liberales 8, 1 (Fall 1981): 29-37.

Ousby, Ian. "Figurative Language in Hard Times ." Durham University Journal, 74, 1 (December 1981): 103-109.

Page, Norman, ed. Dickens: Hard Times, Great Expectations, and Our Mutual Friend: A Casebook . London: Macmillan, 1979.


---. " Ruth and Hard Times: A Dickens Source." Notes and Queries 216 N. S. 18 (November 1971): 413.

Palmer, William J. " Hard Times : A Dickens Fable of Personal Salvation." Dalhousie Review , 52 (Spring 1972): 67-77.

Pearson, Hesketh. Dickens. London: Cassell, 1949.


Petitit, Alexander. "Sympathetic Criminality in Hard Times and Adam Bede." Dickens Studies Annual, 19 (1990): 281-300.

Roe, Frank G. "Surnames in Dickens." Dickensian , 31 (1935): 83-90.

Rosenthal, Sherry Lynne. "Four Essays on the Nostalgic Appeal of Popular Fiction, Film, and Television: Hard Times, The Birth of a Nation, The Grapes of Wrath, All in the Family." DAI 44, 5 (November 1983): 1446A.

Round, Stephen R. "Naming People: Dickens's Technique in Hard Times." Dickens Studies Newsletter, 8 (1977): 36- 40.

Sadock, Geoffrey Johnston. "Dickens and Dr. Leavis: A Critical Commentary on Hard Times." Dickens Studies Annual, 1 (1970). 208-216.

Sadrin, Anny. "A Plea for Gradgrind." Yearbook of English Studies, 3 (1973): 196-205.

Schacht, Paul. "Dickens and the Uses of Nature." Victorian Studies 34, 1 (Autumn, 1990): 77-102.

Schlicke, Paul. " Hard Times: The Necessity of Popular Entertainment." Dickens and Popular Entertainment . London: George Allen and Unwin, 1985.

---. "Introduction" to Charles Dickens' Hard Times . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. Pp. vii-xxii.

Sedgley, Anne. "Hard Times: Facts or Fantasy." Critical Review, 16 (1979): 116- 132.

Shaw, George Bernard. " Hard Times." The Dickens Critics, ed. George H. Ford and Lauriat Lane, Jr. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966.

Sicher, Efraim. "The Boundaries of Space in the Modern Literary Text: Balzac, Dostoevsky, Dickens; Workshops: China and the West; Medieval Islamic Literature; The Feminist Redefinition of Literary Space." Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association: 1988 Munich, III. Space and Boundaries in Literature, ed. Roger Bauer et al. Munich: Iudicium, 1990. Pp. 306-309.

Sloane, David E. "Phrenology in Hard Times: A Source for Bitzer." Dickens Studies Newsletter 5, 1 (March 1974): 9-13.

Smith, Anne. "The Martyrdom of Stephen in Hard Times ." Journal of Narrative Technique 2 (September 1972): 159-170.

Smith, David. "Mary Barton and Hard Times: Their Social Insights." Mosaic 5 (Winter, 1971-2): 97-112.

Smith, Frank Edmund. "Perverted Balance: Expressive Form in Hard Times." Dickens Studies Annual, 6 (1977): 102-118.

Smith, Graham. "Comic Subversion and Hard Times ." Dickens Studies Annual, 18 (1989): 145-160.

Smith, Grahame. "'O reason not the need': King Lear, Hard Times, and Utilitarian Values." Dickensian 86, 3 (Autumn 1990): 164-170.

Sonstroem, David. "Fettered Fancy in Hard Times ." PMLA 84 (May, 1969): 520- 529.

Spector, Stephen J. "Monsters of Metonymy: Hard Times and Knowing the Working Class." ELH 51, 2 (Summer 1984): 365-384.

Stoler, John A. "Dickens' Use of Names in Hard Times ." Literary Onomastics Studies, 12 (1985): 153-164.

Stone, Harry. Dickens' Working Notes for His Novels . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Vogel, Jane. Allegory in Dickens. University of Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1977.

Waldock, A. J. A. "The Status of Hard Times." Southerly9 (1948): 33-39.

Wallis, Bruce L. "Dickens' Hard Times." Explicator 44, 2 (Winter 1986): 26-7.

Williams, Raymond. "The Industrial Novels: Hard Times." Modern Critical Interpretations, Charles Dickens's Hard Times.

---. "The Reader in Hard Times." Writing in Society. London: Verso, 1983. Pp. 166-174.

Wilson, Angus. " Hard Times." The World of Charles Dickens. London: Martin Secker and Warburg, 1970. Pp. 235-241.

Wilson, Christopher. "Tempests and Teapots: Harriet Beecher Stowe's The Minister's Wooing." New England Quarterly 58, 4 (December 1985): 554-577.


Wilson, Edmund. "Dickens: the Two Scrooges." The Wound and the Bow. London: W. H. Allen, 1952; first published in 1941.

Winters, Warrington. "Dickens' Hard Times: The Lost Childhood." Dickens Studies Annual 2 (1972): 217-236.

Yamamoto, Shiro. " Hard Times: Forms and Content--Dickens, Leavis, and Another Tradition?" Studies in English Literature 1988: 35-50.

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