Two views of York Castle, which dates from the thirteenth century. [Click on images to enlarge them.]

According to, "York Castle is an exceptional stone motte and bailey fortress, one of two castles guarding the River Ouse. On the large motte stands Clifford's Tower, a remarkable mid-13th century two storey quatrefoil keep and its later square forebuilding. The bailey has been built over but it still retains part of its curtain wall, flanked by two round towers and the site of the South Gateway. In 1190, an earlier timber tower on the motte, was the site of the massacre of the Jews, after the city's entire Jewish community took shelter there."

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Photograph 1977 by George P. Landow 1977. [You may use this image without prior permission for any scholarly or educational purpose as long as you (1) credit the photographer and (2) link your document to this URL.]

Last modified 12 December 2019