roduction processes affected single-volume publications in ways different from those attending serial publications. Though the importance of publisher's records in establishing printing history has long been recognized, the potential uses are exemplified particularly well in a study of the records for Thackeray's short novel The History of Samuel Titmarsh and the Great Hoggarty Diamond. Not only do these records reveal a hitherto unidentified edition of the book, but combining the information from the records with analytical examination of multiple copies of the books themselves reveals the processes of typesetting, stereotyping, imposition, pressruns, bindings, and sales of the book. As was the case with Vanity Fair, the total production picture has significance to textual analysis and gives insight into the influence of publishers on the book market as well as the book market's influence on publishers.
Thackeray wrote The History of Samuel Titmarsh in January and February 1841. He posted the manuscript to Bentley's Miscellany by 25 February and, having had no word from the publisher by June, reclaimed it rather angrily.29 It was first published in Fraser's Magazine in installments from September to December 1841. In June 1848 Thackeray, having just completed Vanity Fair, suggested to his publisher, Bradbury and Evans, that the firm reprint Samuel Titmarsh in book form. He wrote his mother the same month that he was to receive £100 for the reprint (Letters 2: 382). Although the first charges for Samuel Titmarsh in the Bradbury and Evans records are entered for 30 June 1848, the first edition in book form was the one published, without authorization, by Harper and Brothers of New [170/171] York in November or December 1848 as The Great Hoggarty Diamond. The first English edition, published by Bradbury and Evans, finally appeared in January 1849 (see figs. 1 and 2) and was followed immediately in February by a second edition from the same firm (see fig. 3)30. These two editions have always been referred to collectively as the first edition in book form (a label which ignores the New York edition) or the first English edition. The second of these two English editions, not selling well, was reissued with a new title page and slightly altered preliminaries by Bradbury and Evans in 1852 (see fig. 4) and then again in 1857 and finally by Smith, Elder and Company in 1872 (see fig 5). A fourth edition, published by Bernhard Tauchnitz, of Leipzig, may precede the second English edition, for its setting copy consisted of proof sheets from the first English edition sent from Bradbury and Evans to Williams and Norgate, Tauchnitz's British agents.31 Tauchnitz published the book together with The Book of Snobs as Miscellanies: Prose and Verse, volume 1, in 1849. A fifth edition was issued in two formats simultaneously. It was published in 1857 by Bradbury and Evans separately in paper wrappers as The History of Samuel Titmarsh and the Great Hoggarty Diamond and in cloth as part of the contents of Miscellanies: Prose and Verse, volume 4, a title borrowed from the Tauchnitz firm. The sheets for both of these issues were printed from the same setting of type; but they represent separate printings, for their pagination and signing differ.
On the basis of publisher's records, I conjectured in 1973 the existence of an unrecognized English edition of The History of Samuel Titmarsh [Shillingsburg, Thackeray, p. 13]. Subsequently I found five copies and can show the distinctions between the two editions that had always been listed together simply as "London: Bradbury and Evans, 1849." The second of these editions went so long [171/172] undetected because its preliminary pages and last gathering of text are identical with those in the first English edition, and the rest is virtually a line-for-line resetting which imitates the first edition in every respect, suppressing anything that would easily call attention to itself.33 It is not surprising to find owners of the second edition who think they have the first: the covers are also replicas of the first-edition covers34.
According to the publisher's records, 2,000 copies of The History Of Samuel Titmarsh were printed on 27 January 1849. The records show charges of £40.5.6 for typesetting the first edition, but there is no entry for stereotyped plates. The record's next entry shows a printing of 2,000 more copies on 17 February, referred to as the second edition, entered this time at the cost of £36 for "composing and working" and adding charges for stereotyping. The obvious conclusions to draw are that stereotyped plates were not made for the first English edition, that most of the type was redistributed before a need for the second edition was recognized, and that type had to be recomposed for the second edition only twenty-one days after the printing of the first edition. Composition for the second edition was less expensive because the preliminary twelve pages and one gathering of text type were saved from the first edition for reuse and because line-for-line resetting was probably cheaper than typesetting from the magazine version. Ironically, sales of Samuel Titmarsh dwindled rapidly, and the [172/173]
Fig. 1 (left) W. M. Thackeray's The History of Samuel Titmarsh ... (London: Bradbury & Evans, 1849), first English edition, title page. The second English edition, first issue, title page is identical. (Mitchell Memorial Library, Mississippi State University) [173/174]
Fig. 2. (middle) W. M. Thackeray's The History of Samuel Titmarsh . . . (London: Bradbury & Evans, 1849), first English edition, page 35. (Mitchell Memorial Library, Mississippi State University) [174/175]
Fig. 3. (right)W. M. Thackeray's The History of Samuel Titmarsh . . . (London: Bradbury & Evans, 1849), second English edition, page 35. (British Library C.71.b.12) [175/176]