No single parameter, such as the individual’s own supposed gender preference, can fully and adequately describe that individual’s sexual orientation — Sigmund Freud (paraphrased)

The documents available from this homepage or concept map include bibliographies and time-lines for eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and twentieth-century and earlier concepts of Hermaphroditism, Bisexuality and Inversion, Lesbianism, Homosexuality and Disambiguation. It also discusses psychological treatment in accordance with late-Victorian Sexual theory.

Victorian Theories of Physiology and Psychology of Human Sexuality

Psychological and Medical Approaches

Some Relevant Individuals


Angelides, Steven.History of Bisexuality. Chicago. Chicago University Press. 2001.

Ellmann, Richard.Oscar Wilde. London. Hamish Hamilton. 1987.

Ellis, Henry Havelock.Studies in the Psychology of Sex. Philadelphia. F. A. Davis Co. 1901. Original publication in German, Leipzig 1897. Vol. 2 of an eventual six-volume set published in English before World War 1.

Ellis, H. H.Man and Woman. A Study of Human Secondary Sexual Characters. London: Walter Scott Ltd., 1894.

Freud, Sigmund.Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria. (1901) 1905. Original publication in neurological journal; later in Freud’s collected works. See Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud Ed. James Strachey, Anna Freud et al. in 24 vols. Vol. VII. London. Hogarth Press & Institute of Psychoanalysis. New York: I.U.P. 1953-75.

Freud, S.Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. Original German edition at Vienna by Deuticke. 1905. For definitive English edition see above entry, Vol. VII.

Jones, Ernest.The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 1. London & New York. Hogarth Press & Basic Books. 1953.

Kaplan, Charles.The Only Native British Art Form The Antioch Review. 42.3 (1984): 266-76.

Krafft-Ebing, Richard von.Psychopathia Sexualis, with special reference to Contrary Sexual Instinct. A Medico-Legal Study.Philadelphia. F. A. Davis Co. 1893. Translated by C. G. Chaddock, from German 7th edition.

Kuppfer, Elisarion von.Lieblingminne und Freundsliebe in der Weltlitteratur.Berlin. Berlin-Neurahnsdorf A. Brand. 1900. (Darling and Friend Love in World Literature). An anthology of critical texts. Dismissed the opinion of Hirschfeld and others, of inversion-homosexuality being classified as a “third sex”.

Meier, Christian.Athens. A Portrait of the City in Its Golden Age.New York. Henry Holt. 1998.

Symonds, John Addington.A Problem in Modern Ethics: being an inquiry into the phenomenon of sexual inversion. London. Privately printed, 1896.

Later editions, 1900-1901, bore the title “A Problem in Greek Ethics”.

Tarnowsky, Benjamin.L’Instinct Sexuelle et ses Manifestations Morbides. Au double point de vue de la Jurisprudence et de la Psychiatrie. Traitant de l’Inversion Sexuelle. Paris: Carrington, 1904. (The Sexual Instinct and Its Morbid Manifestations. From the double viewpoint of Jurisprudence and Psychiatry. Treating of Sexual Inversion. By a Professor of the Imperial Academy. St. Petersburg.

Thurman, Judith.Secrets of the Flesh. A Life of Colette. U.K. Ballantine Books. 2000.

Last Modified 10 February 2021