[This bibliography is based chiefly on Mary Carpenter's George Eliot and the Landscape of Time (see below).]

Primary Sources, chiefly from the Nineteenth Century

Alford, Henry. The Greek Testament. 4 vols. London, 1849-61.

Allwood, Philip. Twelve Lectures on the Prophecies Relating to the Christian Church, and Especially to the Apostacy of Papal Rome. Warburtonian Lectures. 2 vols. London, 1815.

Armstrong, Amzi. A Syllabus of Lectures on the Visions of the Revelation. Morristown, N.J., 1815.

Bale, John. Select Works of John Bale . . . Containing . . . the Image of Both Churches. Edited by Rev. Henry Christmas. Cambridge, England, 1849.

Barnes, Albert. Notes, Explanatory and Practical, on the Book of Revelation. New York, 1858.

Baxter, Michael P. The Coming Battle, and the Appalling National Convulsions Foreshown in Prophecy Immediately to Occur during the Period of 1861-67 . . .. London, 1800.

____. Louis Napoleon, the Destined Monarch of the World. 4th ed. Philadelphia, 1863.

Bengelius's Introduction to His Exposition of the Apocalypse: with His Preface to that Work and a Great Part of the Conclusion of It. Trans. John Robertson. London: J. Ryalland R. Withy, 1757.

Bicheno, James. The Destiny of the. German Empire; or An Attempt to Ascertain the Apocalyptic Dragon. London, 1801.

____. Explanation of Scripture Prophecy -- the Signs of the Times. West Springfield, Mass., 1796.

_____. A Friendly Address to the Jews ... to Which Is Added a Letter to Mr. D. Levi. . . . London, [1787].

____. A Glance at the History of Christianity and of English Nonconformity, 4th ed., with ... a Postscript on the Present Movement in the East. [Newbury, England, 1799.]

____. Preparation for the Coming of Christ. London, 1803.

____. The Restoration of the Jews. . . . London, 1800.

____. The Signs of the Times: or. The Overthrow of the Papal Tyranny in France. 2 vols. Vol. i, 4th ed.; Vol. 2, 2d ed. Edinburgh, 1794.

____. Supplement to the Signs of the Times, Containing a Reply to the Objections of Rev. G. S. Faber. London, n.d.

Bickersteth, Edward. Practical Guide to the Prophecies. From the 6th London ed. As published in The Literalist, vol. 4. Philadelphia, 1841.

____. Scripture Help. The Christian's Family Library. London, 1834? First published 1816.

Birchmore, John W. Prophecy Interpreted by History; Including Present Events. Being a Brief and Popular Explanation of Daniel and of St. John. New York, 1871.

Birks, T. R. The Four Prophetic Empires and the Kingdom of Messiah: Being an Exposition of the First Two Visions of Daniel. 2d ed. The Christian's Family Library, ed. Edward Bickersteth. London, 1845.

Bleek, Friedrich. Lectures on the Apocalypse. Edited by Samuel Davidson. London, 1875.

Book of Common Prayer. London: Barritt and Co., 1837.

Bosanquet, James Whatman.Messiah the Prince; or. The Inspiration of the Prophecies of Daniel. . . . 2d ed. London, 1869.

Boyle, William Robert Augustus. The Inspiration of the Book of Daniel. London, 1863.

Brown, John. The Harmony of Scripture Prophecies. . . . Edinburgh, 1800.

Brown, John Aquila. The Jew, the Master-Key of the Apocalypse; in Answer to Mr. Frere's "General Structure," and the Dissertations of the Rev. Edward Irving, and Other Commentators. London, 1827.

Call, W. M. W. "The Apocalypse." Westminster Review, o.s. 76, n.s. 20 (October 1861): 448-87.

Cowles, Henry. The Revelation of John. . . . New York, 1872.

Cumming, John. Apocalyptic Sketches; Lectures on the Book of Revelation. First Series. Philadelphia, 1855.

____. Apocalyptic Sketches; Lectures on the Book of Revelation. Second Series. Philadelphia, 1855.

____. The End; or the Proximate Signs of the Close of the Dispensation. Boston, 1855.

____. The Great Tribulation, or the Things Coming on the Earth. 2 vols. New York, 1860.

____. Prophetic Studies; Lectures on the Book of Daniel. Philadelphia, 1854.

Cuninghame, William. A Critical Examination of Some of the Fundamental Principles of the Rev. George Stanley Faber's Sacred Calendar of Prophecy. Glasgow, 1829.

____. A Dissertation on the Seals and Trumpets of the Apocalypse, and the Prophetical Period of 1260 years. 4th ed. London, 1843.

____. The Pre-Millennial Advent of Messiah Demonstrated from the Scriptures. 3d ed.1828; London,1836.

Darby, John Nelson. Notes on the Book of Revelations. . . . London, 1839.

____. Studies in the Book of Daniel. 3d ed. London, 1864.

Davidson, Samuel. "The Apocalypse of St. John." National Review 18 (April 1864): 3ii-55.

Davison, John. Discourses on Prophecy . . . Its Structure, Use and Inspiration. . . . 5th ed. London, 1845.

Desprez, Philip S. Daniel; or. The Apocalypse of the Old Testament. London, 1865.

____. John, or, The Apocalypse of the New Testament. London, 1870.

De Wette, Wilhelm M. L. A Critical and Historical Introduction to the Canonical Scriptures of the Old Testament. 3d ed. 2 vols. Boston, 1859. First published in English in 1843.

____. An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Canonical Books of the New Testament. Translated from the 5th edition by Frederick Frothingham. Boston, 1858.

Dollinger, Johann. Prophecies and the Prophetic Spirit in the Christian Era. London, 1873.

Drummond, Henry. "A Popular Introduction to the Study of the Apocalypse." Christian Observer. (1830): 129-42.

Eliot, George. Essays. Ed. Thomas Pinney. New York, 1963.

Elliott, Edward Bishop. Horae Apocalypticae: or, a Commentary on the Apocalypse, Critical and Historical. 5th ed. 4 vols. London, 1862.

Elliott, Edward Bishop. The Time of the End . . . by a Congregationalist. Boston, 1856.

Ewald, Heinrich. History of Israel. Translated from the German. 8 vols. London, 1871-86.

Faber, George Stanley. An Answer to the Reply and Strictures Contained in Mr. Bicheno's Supplement to the Signs of the Times. London, 1807.

____. A Dissertation on the Prophecies . . . Relative to the Great Period of the 1260 Years, 1st American ed. from ad London ed. 2 vols. in 1. Boston, 1808.

____. A Dissertation on the Prophecy Contained in Daniel IX. 24-27; Gener- ally Denominated the Prophecy of the 70 Weeks. London, 1811.

____. Eight Dissertations on Certain Connected Prophetical Passages. ... 2 vols. London, 1845.

____. A General and Connected View of the Prophecies. . . . Boston, 1809.

____. Napoleon III, the Man of Prophecy. ... 1st American from 2d English ed. New York, 1859.

____. The Origin of Pagan Idolatry. 3 vols. London, 1816.

____. Remarks on the Effusion of the yth Apocalyptic Vial. . . . London, 1815.

____. The Sacred Calendar of Prophecy. 3 vols. London, 1828.

____. The 70 Weeks of Daniel.... 2d ed. London, 1861.

____. A Supplement to the Dissertation on the 1260 Years: Containing a Full Reply to . . . the Rev. E. W. Whitaker. . . . Stockton, England, 1806.

____. View of the Prophesies Relating to Israel. 2 vols. London, 1809.

Fairbairn, Patrick. Prophecy Viewed in Respect to Its Distinctive Nature. . Edinburgh and Philadelphia, 1856. 2d ed. Edinburgh, 1865.

____. The Typology of Scripture. From the 3d Edinburgh ed. [Vol. 1, 1845; Vol. 2, 1847]. 2 vols. in i. Philadelphia, 1859.

Frere, James Hatley. A Combined View of the Prophecies of Daniel, Esdras, and St. John. ad ed. London, 1815.

____. "On the Expectation of an Individual Antichrist." Christian Observer (November 1835): 658-61.

____. On the General Structure of the Apocalypse. London, 1826.

Fuller, John Mee. An Essay on the Authenticity of the Book of Daniel. Cambridge, England, 1864.

Gaussen, Louis. Geneva and Rome: Rome Papal as Portrayed by Prophecy and History. With an Introduction by E. Bickersteth. New York, 1844.

Gifford, Edwin Hamilton. Voices of the Prophets. Warburtonian Lectures, 1870-74. London. 1874.

Goode, William. Fulfilled Prophecy a Proof of the Truth of Revealed Religion . . . Including a Full Investigation of Daniel's Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks. Warburtonian Lectures, 1854-58. London, 1863.

Greg, William Rathbone. The Creed of Christendom. London, 1851.

Hedge, Frederic H., ed. Recent Inquiries in Theology, by Eminent English Churchmen, Being "Essays and Reviews." 2d American from ad London ed. Boston, 1861.

Hengstenberg, Ernst Wilhelm. The Revelation of St. John. . . . Translated by Patrick Fairbairn. 2 vols. New York, 1852-53.

Hennell, Charles Christian. An Inquiry Concerning the Origin of Christianity. London, 1838.

Hennell, Sara Sophia. The Early Christian Anticipation of an Approaching End of the World. . . . London, 1860.

Thomas Hartwell Horne. An Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures. 7th ed. 4 vols. London: T. Cadell, 1834.

Irving, Edward. Babylon and Infidelity Foredoomed of God: A Discourse on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse. 2 vols. Glasgow, 1826. ____. The Coming of the Messiah .. . by Ben-Ezra [i.e., Manuel Lacunza], 2 vols. London, 1827.

____. The Prophetical Works of Edward living. Edited by Gavin Carlyle. 2 vols. London, 1867-70.

Johnston, Bryce. A Commentary on the Revelation of St. John. 2 vols. London, 1807.

Keith, Alexander. The Evidence of Prophecy. .. . New York, [1833]./p>

____. The Harmony of Prophecy; or, Scriptural Illustrations of the Apocalypse. New York, [1855?].

Kelly, William. Lectures on the Book of Revelation. London, 1861. New and rev. ed. Glasgow, 1869.

____. Notes on the Book of Daniel. London, [1875?].

____. The Revelation of John. London, 1860.

Kuenen, Abraham. Religion of Israel. Translated by Alfred Heath May. 3 vols. London, 1875.

Lange, Johann Peter. The Revelation of John. Translated by Evelina Moore. New York, 1874. Also in Lange's Commentary, ed. Johann Peter Lange. New York, 1868-80.

Lee, Samuel. Six Sermons on the Study of the Holy Scriptures ... to Which Are Annexed Two Dissertations . . . the Second on the Interpretation of Prophecy. London, 1830.

Levi, David. Dissertations on the Prophecies. 3 vols. London, 1796-1800.

Lord, David Nevins. An Exposition of the Apocalypse. New York, 1847.

Lowman, Moses. A Paraphrase and Notes on the Revelation of St. John. ad ed. London, 1745.

Mackay, Robert William. The Progress of the Intellect. 2 vols. London, 1850.

McLeod, Alexander. Lectures upon the Principal Prophecies of the Revelation. New York, 1814.

Maitland, Charles. The Apostles' School of Prophetic Interpretation.. . . London, 1849.

Mann, Joel. An Exposition of the Revelation of John. . . . New York, 1851.

Maurice, F. D. Lectures on the Apocalypse. London, 1861.

Mede, Joseph. The Apostasy of the Latter Times. 1642. London, 1836, 1845.

____. Claws Apocalyptica, or The Key to the Apocalypse. Translated by a clergyman of the established church. 1632. Dublin, 1831.

____. Commentary on the Revelation of St. John . . . by a Follower of the Learned Joseph Mede. Translated by Robert Bronsby Cooper. London, 1833. [Contains a translation of Mede's Clavis Apocalyptica.]

____. The Key of the Revelation. London, 1643.

Milligan, William. The Book of Revelation. "The Expositor's Bible" series. New York: A.C. Armstrong, 1895.

Muggleton, Ludowick. A True Interpretation of the Eleventh Chapter of the Revelation of St. John. 1622. London, 1833.

Newman, J. H. Lectures on the Prophetical Office of the Church. . . . London, 1837.

Newton, Thomas, Bp. Dissertations on the Prophecies. 1754. London, 1832.

Nolan, Frederick. The Chronological Prophecies. London, 1837.

"On the General Scheme and Structure of the Apocalypse." Jewish Expositor 12 (1827): 244-50.

Payne-Smith, Robert. Prophecy a Preparation for Christ. Bampton Lectures, London, 1869.

Pearson, Abel. An Analysis of the Principles of Divine Government . . . and a Dissertation on the Prophecies. Athens, Tenn. 1833.

"The Prophetic Sentence Denounced against the Serpent." Christian Observer (December 1840): 711-15.

Pusey, E. B. Daniel the Prophet. London, 1864.

Review of Alexander Keith's Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion, Derived from the Fulfilment of Prophecy. Jewish Expositor 2 (1826): 290-91.

Review of Works on Prophecy and the Millennium. Christian Observer. (July and August 1825): 422-35, 489-520.

Richards, George. The Divine Origin of Prophecy Illustrated and Defended. Bampton Lectures. Oxford, 1800.

Sawyer, Leicester Ambrose. Daniel, with Its Apocryphal Additions. Boston, 1864.

"The School of the Prophets." The Times, November 7, 1859.

Southcott, Joanna. Sound an Alarm in My Holy Mountain. 3d ed. London, 1806.

Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn. Lectures on the History of the Jewish Church. 2 vols. London, 1863-65. A third volume was published in 1876.

Stewart, John. The Revelation of Nature. . .. 1790. Reprint. Middletown, N.J., 1835.

Stuart, Moses. Commentary on the Apocalypse. 2 vols. Andover, Mass., 1845.

____. A Commentary on the Book of Daniel. Boston, 1850.

____. Hints on the Interpretation of Prophecy. Andover, Mass., 1842.

Thurman, William Carr. Our Bible Chronology Established, the Sealed Book of Daniel Opened. 5th ed. Boston, 1867.

"The Time of the End": . . . Respecting the Prophecies and Periods That Foretell the End. . . . By a Congregationalist. Boston, 1856.

Trench, Richard Chenevix, Archbishop of Dublin. Commentary on the Epistles to the Seven Churches in Asia. New York, 1861.

Waldegrave, Samuel. New Testament Millenarianism. Bampton Lectures. London,1855.

Whitaker, Edward William. Commentary on the Revelation of St. John. London, 1802.

Williams, Isaac. "The Antichrist" in The Characters of the Old Testament in a Series of Sermons. Oxford, 1870. Pp. 323-38.

____. The Apocalypse, with Notes and Reflections. London, 1852.

Winchester, Elhanan. A Course of Lectures on the Prophecies That Remain to Be Fulfilled. Walpole, Mass., 1800.

Woodhouse, John Chappel. The Apocalypse. London, 1805.

Wordsworth, Christopher. The Apocalypse. London, 1849.

Zockler, Otto. The Book of the Prophet Daniel. . . . Translated by James Strong. New York, 1876. In Lange's Commentary, ed. Johann Peter Lange. New York, 1868-80.

Secondary Materials

Mary Carpenter and George P. Landow. "Ambiguous Revelations: The Apocalypse in Victorian Literature," in The Apocalypse in English Renaissance Thought and Literature. eds. C. A. Patrides and Joseph A. Wittreich. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1984; Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984. 299-322.

Mary Carpenter. George Eliot and the Landscape of Time: Narrative Form and Protestant Apocalyptic History. Chapel Hill: U.of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Last modified 1 September 2004