1. Fantasy and Legend: Carroll, MacDonald, Rossetti, Tennsyon
  2. Realism: Dickens, Gaskell, Trollope


  1. Bildungsromanen (narratives of growth and development): Brontë, E. B. Browning, Carroll, Gaskell, MacDonald
  2. Sage-writing: Arnold, Carlyle, Ruskin, Wilde
  3. Narrative poem: E. B. and R. Browning, C. and D. G. Rossetti, Tennyson

Themes, Subject, Situation, and Imagery

  1. Death of Children: C. Brontë,
  2. Dickens, Kingsley, MacDonald
  3. Dreams and visions: Carroll, MacDonald, Tennyson
  4. Female protagonist: Brontë, Browning, Carroll, Dickens, Gaskell,
  5. Past vs. present: Carlyle, MacDonald, Pugin, Ruskin, Tennyson
  6. Plots end with marriage to a crippled or impoversished man: Brontë, Browning, Dickens, Gaskell
  7. Prison, criminal acts, legal system: Dickens, Gaskell, Trollope
  8. Religious faith and doubt: Dickens, Gaskell, MacDonald, Tennyson
  9. Religious imagery: Brontë, Browning, Dickens, Gaskell, MacDonald, Rossetti, Tennyson,
  10. Seduction: Brontë, Browning, MacDonald, Rossetti, Tennyson, Trollopev
  11. Social reform: Browning, Dickens, Gaskell, Ruskin
  12. Swindling, credit, stocks: Dickens, Trollope, Carlyle
  13. The Victorian city: Arnold, Browning, Carlyle, Dickens, Gaskell, Ruskin, Trollope

Last modified 21 July 2015